In January 2008, a 59-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis of his right temporal lobe, which was diagnosed by PCR testing of his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). He was treated with intravenous acyclovir for three weeks and made a full recovery. On discharge, his CSF was negative for HSV on PCR testing. Seven years later, in March 2015, the man was readmitted to our hospital with fever, disorientation, and nominal dysphasia. Diffusion-weighted MRI of his head revealed a high-intensity area in his left temporal lobe. Testing of his CSF revealed a moderately increased monocyte count and HSV on PCR testing, so he was diagnosed with recurrent HSV encephalitis. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir for three weeks. On discharge, his CSF was negative for HSV on PCR testing, but he had mild residual amnesia. There have been few reports of HSV encephalitis with viral reactivation recurring after a long remission period in adults. This case illustrates the need for prolonged follow up of individuals with HSV encephalitis in order to detect recurrences.
The patient was a 29-year-old male. He took his first steps at two-and-a-half years old, but his physical strength deteriorated and he became non-ambulatory at 12 years old. He had respiratory failure at the age of 20, and finally underwent tracheostomy with invasive positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV). He showed distal dominant muscle weakness and atrophy, including the face. Spinal scoliosis was recognized. He had peripheral predominance of sensory disorders. Nerve conduction studies showed a decrease of compound muscle action potential and a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity. Sensory nerve action potential was not evoked. In genetic analysis, c.23 C> T (p. T8M) heterozygous mutation was found in the senataxin gene (SETX). Although SETX is a causative gene of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4), this case suggests that SETX mutation can also cause motor and sensory polyneuropathy.
An 82-year-old female suffered from head trauma, and developed acute consciousness disturbance 6 days after the event. Head CT showed the acute subdural hematoma in the left temporooccipital area and the patient underwent emergency hematoma evacuation and decompression. However, her consciousness disturbance became worse after surgery. Intermittent large negative infraslow shifts (lasting longer than 40 seconds) were recorded in the right posterior quadrant by scalp EEG with TC of 2 sec, that was defined as cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Clinically consciousness disturbance sustained poor until 1 month after surgery in spite of treatment by anti-epileptic drugs. CSDs were observed on the right side where head injury most likely occurred. It may explain the sustained consciousness disturbance associated with significant prolonged ischemia. Once scalp EEG could record CSDs in this particular patient, the degree and its prognosis of traumatic head injury were estimated.
A 48-year-old woman with a right-sided headache beginning a month prior to admission presented with sudden-onset right hemiparesis. On admission, she had weakness of the right lower extremity, which disappeared 3 hours after onset. Contrast enhanced brain MRI revealed no parenchymal lesion, while indicated thrombi in the superior sagittal sinus and the right side of the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and internal jugular vein, leading to the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography presented slightly decreased blood flow in the bilateral frontal lobes (left-sided dominant) and the right occipitotemporal lobe. Electroencephalogram showed no abnormal finding. After anticoagulant therapy, thrombi in the venous sinuses decreased and brain blood flow improved. We should consider cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of a transient ischemic attack accompanied with headache. Moreover, the etiology of transient neurological deficits remains controversial.
A 79-year-old man presented with chest and back pain on the right side but with no cutaneous lesions. He had received oral corticosteroids and immunosuppressants for systemic lupus erythematosus. He had spastic paraplegia, sensory disturbance in the lower limbs, and dysfunction of the bladder and bowel. He showed mononuclear-dominant pleocytosis and elevated proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and a decreased CSF/blood glucose ratio. Although polymerase chain reaction techniques found no varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA, VZV IgG antibodies were elevated in both the serum and CSF, and the VZV IgG index was dramatically elevated. MRI revealed no lesions in the brain or spine. However, somatosensory evoked potentials in the tibial nerve showed abnormal prolongation of the central sensory conduction time. We diagnosed the patient with acute myelitis associated with zoster sine herpete (ZSH). He received acyclovir and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in the early stage, and his symptoms and CSF findings completely recovered. We conclude that acute myelitis associated with ZSH should be treated as soon as possible because VZV infection may induce necrotizing myelitis if the treatment is delayed.
A 66-year-old woman who had myasthenia gravis (MG) admitted for type II respiratory failure and right heart failure. Although she had neither ptosis, eye movement disorder, nor diplopia, she had orbital muscles weakness, reduction of gag reflex, dysarthria, dysphagia, and mild proximal muscle weakness. Blood tests showed anti-striated muscle antibodies (anti-titin antibody and anti-Kv1.4 antibody). A muscle biopsy of the left biceps showed a marked variation in fiber size, mild mononuclear cell infiltration was seen surrounding blood vessels in perimysium and nemaline bodies in some fibers. Immunohistochemical stains showed many muscle fibers express HLA-ABC. The patient was diagnosed as sporadic late-onset nemaline myopathy (SLONM) with MG, and treated by tacrolimus. After treatment, her respiratory function gradually improved and she discharged. In the case of atypical MG, measurement of anti-striated muscle antibody or muscle biopsy should be considered.
A 72-year-old male was diagnosed pneumococcal meningitis and we started treatment with antibacterial drugs and corticosteroids. On the 6th day, his consciousness level decreased. On the 7th day DWI of MRI showed a new infarction in bilateral cerebellar, and MRA showed multiple arterial stenosis. On the 12th day, CT angiography showed expansion of cerebral infarction and progress of diffuse stenosis. After that the stenosis improved over time, it disappeared on the 39th day. These results suggest that vasospasm is involved in the pathology of vascular stenosis.
A 66-year-old woman presented with dysesthesia over the right side of her face, hypoglossal nerve dysfunction, dysphagia, and dysgeusia of the right side. A MRI scan of the brain revealed cerebral dural thickening on the right side of the skull base, and histopathological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation of the dura. Based on paranasal sinusitis, bronchodilatation, laboratory tests showing weakly positive MPO-ANCA, intact renal function, and the patient’s favorable response to steroids, we diagnosed the patient with limited granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Reportedly, autoimmune disease might occur in patients with exacerbation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, which was observed in this case. This suggests the utility of immunoelectrophoresis.
This is the rare case report that bilateral vagus nerve paralysis was emerged as the initial symptom of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). An 83-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of dysphagia. His dysphagia progressed two months prior to admission. Although physical examination revealed no abnormality, videoendoscopy and videofluorography examination clearly revealed bilateral vagus nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed hypointense signals at the bilateral clivus on T1 weighted images, suggesting tumor infiltration to bilateral petroclivus. He was diagnosed as AML by blood samples and bone marrow biopsy. After initiation of the treatment including radiation therapy, dysphagia shows mild improvement. Although bilateral cranial nerve palsy due to malignant tumor involving at the clivus is very uncommon, we should pay attention to the symptom.