The purpose of this paper is to analyze energy transformation in China. An important point of view discusses energy conversion in relation to "technology and social system". So, first of all, I would like to discuss the theoretical framework and perspectives on "technology - social relations" in the first half of this paper, chapter 1 and chapter 2. In the second half of this paper, Chapter 3discusses the influence of China's energy supply and demand etc. on the entire energy system. The theoretical issue lies in not fully capturing the difference in technical characteristics such as photovoltaic power generation technology and coal-fired power generation technology. In other words, for the purpose of electricity production like solar power generation, it is a technology that is not different from coal-fired power generation, but its qualitative facts are very different. And, the difference in this technical characteristic is characterized by a significant change in meaning contents and value in social context. The social context pointed out here is, in other words, influenced by cultural differences, so it can be said that this cultural difference ultimately is also a difference between climate culture and religious norms and Ethos. A distinctive cultural difference is a difference that exists in European countries and East Asia, and this base layer may be a difference of religious view (monotheism / polytheism) and a difference of nature view and cosmic view like that.
Foreign Direct Investment is considered not just as important source of capital but valuable channel for technology transfer. The amount of Foreign Direct Investment in renewable energy has been rapidly growing in recent years, but there are great differences in the amount allocated between countries. This paper first analyzes determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in wind energy in developing countries by employing Structural Equation Modeling, and clarifies the importance of renewable energy support policies for attracting investments. And the paper further investigates into the renewable energy policies in China, which has a unique composition of Foreign Direct Investment and domestic investment in its wind energy sector. By doing so, the paper sheds light on the effect of renewable energy policies on Foreign Direct Investment, and how China became one of the leading countries in wind energy sector with their peculiar renewable energy industrial policy.
Recently in China, it has often occurred that nationalism grows in the internet space. It was found in not only anti-Japan demonstrations in 2005 but also patriotism movements of the United States and France. It is said that factors on the linkage between collective memories and the identity is explained with three perspectives of primitive, constructivism and instrumental. However, the internet nationalism in China cannot be fully explained by that. In this paper, the internet nationalism of China is demonstrated from the socio-psychological aspect, covering the cases of “Yellow Ribbon” Campaign, “Hongke” the hacker collective and the anti-Japan sentiment.
Studies on Japanese settlers in colonial Korea are taking on a new aspect. Recent studies, at the least, are assuming a different standpoint from existing researches, which view Japanese settlers as 'spearheads of invasion.' Simply put, studies of colonial era are welcoming a turning<br>point, breaking away from the dichotomous frame of determining 'either exploitation or modernization. The purpose of this study is to classify Japanese settlers in colonial Korea by generation and to specifically investigate the experience and awareness of the second generation settlers through literature and stories they left behind. The second generation settlers refer to Japanese people who immigrated to the colony when they were young or were born in the colony. Most of them returned to Japan after Japan's defeat in World War II. Their mental structure formed in the midst of dynamic experiences of the time show complicated aspects. The second generation settlers who had returned to Japan after the 1945 defeat started to publish memoirs and stories since the 1970s. Examining these literature, it was found that the sense of incompatibility among the second generation settlers for the post-war Japanese society, which seemed to have healed over with the rapid economic growth of Japan that began right after the post-war famine, was still prevalent among these generation. Muramatsu Takeshi, a poet and a third generation of colonial Korea, described such identity of second generation settlers of colonial Korea as 'half Japanese-half Korean.' These second generation Japanese settlers of colonial Korea are people who revive the colonial memory that post-war Japan have been neglecting. In other words, they act as a bridge between the Imperial Japan and the Japan today. This is the very reason why the present study underlines the history and consciousness structure of the second generation Japanese settlers of colonial Korea.
School bullying is recognized as a public issue in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan, and anti-bullying programs in three societies have been performed for more than a decade. In order to prevent school bullying, a number of agencies including school, police, administrative, counselor and social worker are participating in the programs, and the school plays as a major performer of bullying prevention programs in each society. However, the role of school required for each bullying prevention program always differs from each other as a result of differences in institutional contexts.<br> This paper aims to clarify the diverse roles of schools and the responsibility division between school and other agencies in the current anti-bullying programs of Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. To construct the analysis strategy, I briefly reviewed the sociological studies about the function of school in Section 2, and adopt the idea of “dispositif” advocated by Michel Foucault for understanding the roles of school in three societies. In Section 3, I made an analysis about the bullying recognition, prevention, and role of school in anti-bullying program of the three societies by using the official documents issued by the Ministry of Education in Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. In Section 4, I summarized the features, especially the technology of current anti-bullying programs of Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan as “Punishment Type”, “Disciplining Type” and “Risk-decreasing Type”. As a further step, I verified that bullying prevention technology, which provides both a structure and a field for school in an anti-bullying program, is an important clue for understanding the role of school and responsibility division between school and other actors.
A purpose of this report is to consider operation and the inequity of the farmer mechanic in China. Systems reform over the issue of operation of the farmer mechanic had been performed in the labor market of China for a long term, but, however, the operation of the farm village work force brought unequal society for regulation by the 2 yuan family registry system. As a result, the problem about the labor operation of the farmer mechanic comes to be extensive. I promote operation nationally and take responsibility for fixing the condition to raise an operation rate, but, actually, it is limited in China by various factors. The farmer is an alliance to a mule, a worker, and there cannot be the discrimination, but there is originally the actual situation that I occupy 70% of population, and a quantitative superior farmer feels discrimination in front of city inhabitants. I make discrimination, and it may be said that a system to permit discrimination supports existence of this discrimination. Family registry system divided between a city and farm villages is it. The operation discrimination of the farmer mechanic by the family registry system extends to the whole of the operation of the farmer mechanic. I set a limit to operation, and operation discrimination is the concrete expression. It is predicted in future in China that movement to take up a problem to be concerned with the operation that improvement is demanded from for a farmer mechanic immediately, the reward acquisition, occupation security, vocational training, labor dispute processing increases.