Farming Family typical of Japanese tradition was stem family. It had the system of patriarch and primogeniture. The eldest son continued to live after marriage in the same house with his parents. The family continues over generations. This was the Japanese family, ‘ie’; ‘In some case, younger sons established branch families (called bunke=分家) . Main family they left was called ‘honke’(本家). Honke and bunke keep intimate cooperative relation in daily lives from generation to generation. Ariga established theory of “ie“ and mura(Japanese village community) in the sociological study of Japanese rural society. In principal work, he insisted as follows. There were two types of rural village. ① Village developed by one powerful stem family. There appeared the group consisting of main family and branch families (Douzok=同族)., including the relation of master and servant ②Village developed by plural families in equal status. Then, there were two types of relation among “ie”. One is vertical(upper ‐lower) one and another is horizontal (equal)one. The former relation appeared as the group of blood relatives’(called douzoku(同族), consisting of main family and branch family. Second type also easily changed to the honke-bunke relation, if there appeared vertical relation. In Japan, Generally, vertical relation become to such kindred -like or patron -client relation. The upper had legitimacy of “publicness”, the lower’s activities were private, and the person on upper status initiate the social relation. The cooperation of Japanese become stronger in vertical relation, and weaker in horizontal one. This is the nationality (national characteristics) of Japan proper, Ariga insisted. After the World Ⅱ, Ariga did not strongly insisted Japanese nationality . His theory concentrate on the study of ‘ie’ .He argued ie and honke-bunke group(同族) were originated to get life-security of group members. This was indispensable in the lacking circumstances of political assistance for life- security. Late in life, Ariga developed the thought of integrate cultural sphere of nation. On behalf of insisting the persistence of cultural tradition in his young days, he thought that this sphere of japan had been gradually changed through the creative activities of Japanese and exchanging with other cultures outside, but on the base of national tradition, Japanese ‘ie’ culture also is changing.
This paper discusses how, if at all, Mandarin education affects Uyghur students in terms of the potential correlation between language and identity in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang is located in the north-west part of China and it has been experiencing violent incidents against government policies recently. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has applied various social policies with the aim of achieving a “harmonious society” through “ethnic unity” under “Chinese Nation” as a response to those incidents. Mandarin education is one of the ways CPC employs to achieve ethnic unity. In Xinjiang, the importance of acquiring Mandarin language is stressed to ethnic minorities, like Uyghur who are mostly Muslim. Through literature reviews, a site visit, and interviews with Uyghur, this paper reveals influence of Mandarin education on Uyghur-Han ethnic group relations and Uyghur identity. It also explores validity of Mandarin education as means to realize ethnic unity and a so-called harmonious society. Language and identity are closely related to each other. For instance, language determines ethnic identity and identity encourages its holder to learn language. Mandarin education segregates Uyghur and Han Chinese and strengthens Uyghur identity because of this correlation. As this form of education differentiates Uyghur from Han and emphasizes the difference of Uyghur ethnic identity, current education overemphasizing Mandarin is not appropriate as means to achieve CPC’s goal of ethnic unity and a harmonious society. If the CPC wants to realize harmonious society as a multi-ethnic country, it should introduce education which esteems minority languageand culture, and should promote mutual understanding from both the minority side and majority Han side. In harmonious societies and multi-ethnic states, each ethnic group maintains its traditional language and culture. Minorities and Han should seek to understand one another through ongoing interaction and mutual acceptance of cultural difference. Key words: Mandarin education, language and identity, Xinjiang, Uyghur
This paper aims to examine how ethnicity and socioeconomic status affect the positive attitudes toward Japan’s colonial rule among different cohorts in contemporary Taiwan. Data comes from national identity module of Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 2003. Multi-population covariance structure analyses are used. Results show that (1) respondents’ born between 1944 and 1955 tend to evaluate Japanese colonial period more positively than mainlanders, suggesting the direct effects of ethnicity. On the other hand, direct effects of ethnicity become weaker for respondents in younger cohort. (2) For respondents born between 1956 and 1965, ethnicity affects their attitudes toward Japanese colonial period indirectly through their parents’ and their own socioeconomic status. Interestingly, mainlanders with higher socioeconomic status tend to view Japanese colonial rule positively. (3) For respondents’ born between 1966 and 1975, only indirect effects of ethnicity are shown. For those born between 1976 and 1984, while indirect effects of ethnicity are not found, respondents’ own socioeconomic status shows direct effects. Implications and future directions are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the sense of “Homes” of Chinese newcomers living in a less concentrated area of Chinese Residents in Japan with a focus on the absence of the relationship with China. I interviewed six adolescent Chinese newcomers living in a city where there is no concentrated area of Chinese residents. The research results revealed the following: First, Chinese newcomer adolescents tend to loose self-esteem as “Chinese” because of bullying or discrimination, and distance themselves from China as their “home”. And, due to the absence of relations with China, they often express themselves as Japanese rather than Chinese. Second, infrequent contact with China results in the lack of language skills and cultural affiliation, which in turn makes it difficult for them to feel attachment to China. Third, the concept of “home” is varied and fluctuates as they feel a sense of locality according to time and circumstances.
China is witnessing its remarkable economic growth; in the meanwhile,however, the gender division of labor consciousness among young population tends to become conservative. Similar findings were also obtained in Japan. It turns out that there exists an identical trend in these two countries. In this study, a semi‐structured interview was conducted on the married females who gave birth in their 20s and 30s, and with children rearing experience, when the parents of these women were both living and in good health. Interviewees were sampled from cities with three urban hierarchies in China. The relationship between life events and the change of gender division of labor consciousness among young Chinese women was analyzed from a "micro" point of view. Results show that along with life events (such as embarking on higher education, finding a job, or getting married) that occurs, interviewees are predisposed to conventional gender division of labor consciousness. Even though getting married and children rearing are regarded as important life events that account for such a change, the change gradually took place prior to these events as explicitly revealed in this study.
Concerning the Chinese rural society is in the transformation period, some people indicate that it is sinking and degenerating, while some argue that it is declining and disappearing. As I observed and researched, the social structure that is established on the basis of cultivation culture is truly collapsing and being replaced by a complex and chaotic structure. Individual behavior logic in rural society is shifting from acquaintance-society principle to semi-acquaintance-society and anonymous-society principle as agricultural civilization and industrial and commercial civilization are performing a kind of game in Chinese countryside. Villages have gradually lost their original cultural cohesion, and replaced by a state of disunity. What I am worried about is not its external decline and decadence but the disappearance of its cultural atmosphere and positive spirits. This thesis adopts the approach of meticulous fieldwork, which is a common research method in sociology and anthropology. The thesis focuses on the phenomenon that gambling is prevailing in a depressed countryside, a summarization and conclusion of the features of the phenomenon to make a deep analysis in it`s inside social mentality and social fabric through the investigation and study of the phenomenon. In the end, this thesis presents some unique standpoints on the longtime top-down village construction mode as well as the rural society’s dependence on superior government, which developed under this mode.