21世紀東アジア社会学
Online ISSN : 2423-8856
Print ISSN : 1883-0862
ISSN-L : 1883-0862
2016 巻 , 8 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
論文
  • 高橋 明善
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 1-35
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     Farming Family typical of Japanese tradition was stem family. It had the system of patriarch and primogeniture. The eldest son continued to live after marriage in the same house with his parents. The family continues over generations. This was the Japanese family, ‘ie’;
    ‘In some case, younger sons established branch families (called bunke=分家) . Main family they left was called ‘honke’(本家). Honke and bunke keep intimate cooperative relation in daily lives from generation to generation.
     Ariga established theory of “ie“ and mura(Japanese village community) in the sociological study of Japanese rural society.
     In principal work, he insisted as follows.
     There were two types of rural village. ① Village developed by one powerful stem family. There appeared the group consisting of main family and branch families (Douzok=同族)., including the relation of master and servant ②Village developed by plural families in equal status.
     Then, there were two types of relation among “ie”. One is vertical(upper ‐lower) one and another is horizontal (equal)one. The former relation appeared as the group of blood relatives’(called douzoku(同族), consisting of main family and branch family. Second type also easily changed to the honke-bunke relation, if there appeared vertical relation. In Japan, Generally, vertical relation become to such kindred -like or patron -client relation. The upper had legitimacy of “publicness”, the lower’s activities were private, and the person on upper status initiate the social relation.
     The cooperation of Japanese become stronger in vertical relation, and weaker in horizontal one. This is the nationality (national characteristics) of Japan proper, Ariga insisted.
     After the World Ⅱ, Ariga did not strongly insisted Japanese nationality . His theory concentrate on the study of ‘ie’ .He argued ie and honke-bunke group(同族) were originated to get life-security of group members. This was indispensable in the lacking circumstances of political assistance for life- security.
     Late in life, Ariga developed the thought of integrate cultural sphere of nation. On behalf of insisting the persistence of cultural tradition in his young days, he thought that this sphere of japan had been gradually changed through the creative activities of Japanese and exchanging with other cultures outside, but on the base of national tradition, Japanese ‘ie’ culture also is changing.

  • -泉州地域百崎回族郷を事例として
    王 維
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 36-56
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

      本文以福建省泉州地区白族回族乡郭氏一族为例,在比较同一地区不同的回族社区实践的基础上,对泉州地区回族的社会文化的变迁和认同的构建等问题进行了探讨。泉州地区的回族,在中国回族社会文化史中占有特殊的地位。他们的西亚穆斯林祖先主要是通过海路而来。在历史上其社会时空的形成和变迁以及穆斯林认同的起伏与宋元时期泉州曾是重要的国际贸易口岸密切相关,同时与福建南部儒家文化的高度发展有关。通过比较同一地区中不同回民社区的历史经验,可以验证即使在泉州地区,因其自然和社会环境不同,回民的文化变迁也存在着不同的类型。百崎回族的社会时空的形成和变迁具有以下的几个特点:百崎回族的社会空间是在与汉族主流社会的非对称的关系中形成和变化的,在与汉族等共存,相互作用,相互纠结的理解和实践中不断重新构建自己的认同;其自然环境和社会环境是形成百崎回族独特的社会结构的重要因素;百崎回族族群性和认同是通过宗祠、族谱、墓地、祭祀、南音等,在各个历史时期具有不同意义、有形无形的象征性符号來不断地被记忆和构建的。

  • 新井 凜子, 大谷 順子
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 57-74
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

       This paper discusses how, if at all, Mandarin education affects Uyghur students in terms of the potential correlation between language and identity in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang is located in the north-west part of China and it has been experiencing violent incidents against government policies recently. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has applied various social policies with the aim of achieving a “harmonious society” through “ethnic unity” under “Chinese Nation” as a response to those incidents. Mandarin education is one of the ways CPC employs to achieve ethnic unity. In Xinjiang, the importance of acquiring Mandarin language is stressed to ethnic minorities, like Uyghur who are mostly Muslim. Through literature reviews, a site visit, and interviews with Uyghur, this paper reveals influence of Mandarin education on Uyghur-Han ethnic group relations and Uyghur identity. It also explores validity of Mandarin education as means to realize ethnic unity and a so-called harmonious society.
       Language and identity are closely related to each other. For instance, language determines ethnic identity and identity encourages its holder to learn language. Mandarin education segregates Uyghur and Han Chinese and strengthens Uyghur identity because of this correlation. As this form of education differentiates Uyghur from Han and emphasizes the difference of Uyghur ethnic identity, current education overemphasizing Mandarin is not appropriate as means to achieve CPC’s goal of ethnic unity and a harmonious society. If the CPC wants to realize harmonious society as a multi-ethnic country, it should introduce education which esteems minority languageand culture, and should promote mutual understanding from both the minority side and majority Han side. In harmonious societies and multi-ethnic states, each ethnic group maintains its traditional language and culture. Minorities and Han should seek to understand one another through ongoing interaction and mutual acceptance of cultural difference. Key words: Mandarin education, language and identity, Xinjiang, Uyghur

  • ─多母集団共分散構造分析を用いたコーホート別比較─
    寺沢 重法
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 75-91
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

       This paper aims to examine how ethnicity and socioeconomic status affect the positive attitudes toward Japan’s colonial rule among different cohorts in contemporary Taiwan. Data comes from national identity module of Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 2003. Multi-population covariance structure analyses are used. Results show that (1) respondents’ born between 1944 and 1955 tend to evaluate Japanese colonial period more positively than mainlanders, suggesting the direct effects of ethnicity. On the other hand, direct effects of ethnicity become weaker for respondents in younger cohort. (2) For respondents born between 1956 and 1965, ethnicity affects their attitudes toward Japanese colonial period indirectly through their parents’ and their own socioeconomic status. Interestingly, mainlanders with higher socioeconomic status tend to view Japanese colonial rule positively. (3) For respondents’ born between 1966 and 1975, only indirect effects of ethnicity are shown. For those born between 1976 and 1984, while indirect effects of ethnicity are not found, respondents’ own socioeconomic status shows direct effects. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  • ―中国との関係性の不在に着目して―
    劉 昊
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 92-106
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

       The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the sense of “Homes” of Chinese newcomers living in a less concentrated area of Chinese Residents in Japan with a focus on the absence of the relationship with China. I interviewed six adolescent Chinese newcomers living in a city where there is no concentrated area of Chinese residents. The research results revealed the following: First, Chinese newcomer adolescents tend to loose self-esteem as “Chinese” because of bullying or discrimination, and distance themselves from China as their “home”. And, due to the absence of relations with China, they often express themselves as Japanese rather than Chinese. Second, infrequent contact with China results in the lack of language skills and cultural affiliation, which in turn makes it difficult for them to feel attachment to China. Third, the concept of “home” is varied and fluctuates as they feel a sense of locality according to time and circumstances.

  • ――東北地区のH 県を事例として
    胡 源源
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 107-123
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     本稿以中国东北地区H 县为例,考察跨国婚姻移民对移出地的影响。据笔者调查,中国东北地区存在一定数量的「异民族跨国中介婚姻」,本稿将此称之「东北模式」的「异民族跨国中介婚姻」。本稿主要探讨两个问题(1)「东北模式」的「异民族跨国中介婚姻」的形成机制,(2)「异民族跨国中介婚姻」家庭的运营实况。
     通过调查发现,「东北模式」的「异民族跨国中介婚姻」的形成机制有以下几点。(1)东北地区女性海外移动的常态化,不仅给当地人口结构带来冲击,同时也加剧了当地人对中国女性的不信任。这为当地婚姻市场接收外国妻子创造了空间。(2)女性的大量外移带动了当地择偶标准的变化。过去在择偶标准上加附于女性的性别要素,在男多女少的婚姻市场上方向调转,在男性身上凸显出来。即不仅经济地位薄弱的男性,样貌、年龄等在性别规范中处于劣势的男性也容易被排挤出国内的结婚市场,被迫迈入跨国婚姻的行列。(3)东北地区独特的移民文化为当地接受外国妻子提供了一个宽松的社会环境。
     由于是婚姻中介介绍的婚姻而且自身家庭条件欠佳,在中国父母的潜意识里始终担心越南媳妇会随时离家出走。所以在日常生活中,他们通过灵活处理家庭关系以及支持越南媳妇对母国的援助等方式来挽留住她们。

  • 華 京碩
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 124-137
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     满洲国时期的关东军对东三省新闻业的控制和摧残是近代东北报业发展史上一个值得关注的问题。由于关东军在战败时烧毁了大量资料,造成了现代中国的满洲国时期报纸研究的碎片化、往往局限在纯以报纸内容分析为主,而无法完整的解析在幕后控制报纸的关东军的意图及满洲国主要的日系中文报纸的具体经营情况。事实上,在日本的外务省外交史料馆、防卫省防卫研究所战史资料室及国会图书馆的宪政资料室里仍然保存了大量满洲国时期的关东军提交给政府的文书和当事者的记录。但是由于中日两国学者在这方面交流的不足,目前这些资料还未被系统的整理和使用。本稿的目的就是利用日本国内的关东军新闻干预的相关资料,以及中国国内的一部分口述史料、地方志研究的成果,来具体解析三个问题:满洲国时期关东军干预报业发展采取的形式;日系中文报纸最后的消亡;日本报人的最后结局。从而对军事组织关东军的新闻干预,满洲国时期的日系新闻和日本报人的研究进行一点尝试。

  • ―若年既婚者へのインタビュー調査から―
    田 嫄
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 138-150
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     China is witnessing its remarkable economic growth; in the meanwhile,however, the gender division of labor consciousness among young population tends to become conservative. Similar findings were also obtained in Japan. It turns out that there exists an identical trend in these two countries.
     In this study, a semi‐structured interview was conducted on the married females who gave birth in their 20s and 30s, and with children rearing experience, when the parents of these women were both living and in good health. Interviewees were sampled from cities with three urban hierarchies in China. The relationship between life events and the change of gender division of labor consciousness among young Chinese women was analyzed from a "micro" point of view. Results show that along with life events (such as embarking on higher education, finding a job, or getting married) that occurs, interviewees are predisposed to conventional gender division of labor consciousness. Even though getting married and children rearing are regarded as important life events that account for such a change, the change gradually took place prior to these events as explicitly revealed in this study.

  • -西安市での調査を事例に
    劉 念
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 151-163
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     本文以养老机构的设立・运营方式的不同,以及入住老人的经济阶层的差异为出发点,在西安市选定了6 所养老机构,并对其中的24 位入住老人进行了采访调查。目的在于考察中国城市地区养老机构的入住老人的生活现状,分析其中所存在的问题。调查结果显示基础设施条件、养老服务质量等各方面都比较完善的机构只有1 所,该机构面向于经济条件富裕的老人。其他5 所机构都存在各种各样的问题。然而,其中同属公立性质的3 所机构,受设立主体性质的影响,所存在的问题也大不相同,而另外2 所民营机构之间,则因设立时间、与行政部门的关系等因素的影响而有所差异。这些养老机构之间的差异,正是现代中国社会所存在的经济差距和社会矛盾的写照,是仅仅依靠个人努力、各机构的独自摸索远远不能克服的。解决这些问题需要相关部门根据各机构的特征,分别进行行政指导和援助。特别是以国家经济财富的再分配为原则的各种基础政策的再构筑是中国政府所面临的重大课题。

  • ―日本と中国農村中学校の比較から―
    劉 麗鳳
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 164-181
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     2000年以后,中国农村中学生的辍学率呈持续上升状态。在当前高等教育资源相对稀缺的社会背景下,学校与学生分别面临着升学压力,因此中学生的辍学率更是居高不下。而日本中学则更加注重对每个学生相对均等的教育。本文以日本中学为对比对象,从文化视点出发,对教学.学校生活.班级集体三个方面的教师指导方法进行了比较。
     通过作者的长期调研得到以下结论。日本中学的教师尽量避免学生之间的差异,加强学生之间的互助行为,从正式以及非正式的两个方面对学生进行了解。并且借用学校的教学理论以及结构性的教学方法解决学生的问题、对于无法解决的问题则解释为学生的性格问题,以此回避对自身教师身份的扰乱。中国农村中学的教师则强调学生间的差异,不注重学生之间的互助关系,比起辍学率更注重学生的升学率,并以此获得教师身份的安定。而且农村中学缺少结构性的教学方法,这种教师文化和学校教学制度使得学生的辍学率居高不下。

  • ―中国流通の台湾版『進撃の巨人』を素材に法的側面から
    高橋 孝治
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 182-194
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     在中国限制出版物的出版和输入等等。在台湾有“东立出版有限公司”,这个公司翻译日本的漫画,在台湾出售。东立出版了解中国的出版物的输入限制,他们也说“向中国的漫画输出很难”。但是就笔者的调查来说,在北京其实也能买东立出版的漫画。为什么会发生这样的现象?本文拟探求这个现象背后的法律原由。结论是,对很大的公司的限制很大,但对个体经营的限制很少。总之只看结论的话,中国的创意产业上现在也有对大资本没有优待。这是和社会主义的构成相同的。本文的素材是东立出版出售的“进击的巨人”。

  • ――湖北省A 村を事例に――
    張 成
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 195-206
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

       Concerning the Chinese rural society is in the transformation period, some people indicate that it is sinking and degenerating, while some argue that it is declining and disappearing. As I observed and researched, the social structure that is established on the basis of cultivation culture is truly collapsing and being replaced by a complex and chaotic structure. Individual behavior logic in rural society is shifting from acquaintance-society principle to semi-acquaintance-society and anonymous-society principle as agricultural civilization and industrial and commercial civilization are performing a kind of game in Chinese countryside. Villages have gradually lost their original cultural cohesion, and replaced by a state of disunity. What I am worried about is not its external decline and decadence but the disappearance of its cultural atmosphere and positive spirits. This thesis adopts the approach of meticulous fieldwork, which is a common research method in sociology and anthropology. The thesis focuses on the phenomenon that gambling is prevailing in a depressed countryside, a summarization and conclusion of the features of the phenomenon to make a deep analysis in it`s inside social mentality and social fabric through the investigation and study of the phenomenon. In the end, this thesis presents some unique standpoints on the longtime top-down village construction mode as well as the rural society’s dependence on superior government, which developed under this mode.

  • ---香港、台湾以及中国大陆的酷儿电影节
    秦 勤
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 207-224
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

    1970年代的性解放运动催生了包括男同性恋解放运动和从女性解放分支出去的女同性恋/双性恋运动。这些活动旨在倡导同性恋权益和自由,并且催生了世界首届同性恋电影节的诞生。进入20世纪80年代,此类电影节紧接着在香港和日本等地区兴起。同时代兴起的酷儿理论(queer theory)主张性的自我认同(sexual identification)与性取向(sexual orientation)并非生物学因素决定,而是通过社会和文化过程形成的。此后越来越多的性少数派影展使用“酷儿”(queer)这个词指代性少数派以此使影展本身具有更大的涵盖性。本论文着眼台湾,香港和中国大陆地区的性少数派影展,即台湾国际酷儿影展、香港同志影展、北京酷儿影展和上海骄傲电影节,提出两个问题:一是,如何通过这几个案列分析,解读“同志政治”即华语地区的性少数派身份以及性别政治,其目的在于理清“同志”与“酷儿”之间的联系和区别;二是阐述为何都市空间(urban space)对于研究酷儿电影节有着至关重要的意义。

研究ノート
  • ――中国内モンゴルの漢語作家によるモンゴル文学――
    孛 額勒斯, 坂部 晶子
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 225-240
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

      这篇文章介绍现代中国的蒙古作家,孛·额勒斯的作品《南斯勒玛》,以及把这篇小说翻译成日文。作家是居住在内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔市的蒙古族,而使用汉语来创造作品。他是呼伦贝尔蒙古作家的代表人物之一。改革开放以后,呼伦贝尔的少数民族面临着市场经济带来的新危机和社会问题。他们的传统生活方式,在社会主义时代,还保持着一定程度的原来的生计,民族语言和与生活方式相关的民族文化。但是改革开放以后,这些方面受到了很大的变化。《南斯勒玛》这篇小说充分地表达这段时间的社会变迁和一个蒙古家庭的情况。

  • <いのち>―生と死、自然と人々の営みが交叉する―の「場」はどこに?
    水野 博達
    2016 年 2016 巻 8 号 p. 241-248
    発行日: 2016/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー

     纵观中国的社区建设所走过的历史进程,我们可以预测到,这个课题依然面临着多样的挑战。难,且棘手。中国和日本虽然在社会体制和发展时期上存在着差异,可这两个国家都曾选择优先发展经济,通过财政投资和融资实现了高速的工业化和城市化,使经济得到了迅猛的发展。然而,作为优先发展经济的副产品,两国社会都步入了少子高龄社会。
     经济成长使市场原理渗透到社会的方方面面。同时也淡化了过去人们在社区生活(共同体)中形成的互惠互助的共生关系。在这样的局面下,日本社会开始寻求“地域力的再生”,即通过社区居民的互惠互助来解决社区内部的养老护理、生活困难等问题。在这样的前提下,我从把握近代社会的视角来重新看待护理保险制度成立以来的这十五年。厘清这十五年给基层社会——家庭、家人、地域等——带来的变化。我发现,进入近代以来,人们生活在一种假想的、虚幻的自立自尊中。人们无视了人与人之间的联系,错误地以为自己可以独立于社会来达成“自立”和“自尊”。而真相是,如果没有“相互依存”,人类社会便无法正常运转,人便无法生存。而所谓的尊严,其实就存在于“生和死”的意义之中。我认为,对于我们长久以来对“依存”的视而不见,是必须正视的。因而我在这篇论文中就人类社会的现实、生与死的意义等重要课题进行了讨论。我相信对这些课题的研究,能够造就使社区共同体再次焕发活力的基石。

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