13 compounds including 6 germanes were examined as precursors for the electrochemical anion accumulation in dimethylformamide-tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate system at −50°C. Accumulation of 9 anions was confirmed by measuring their oxidation potentials (That of 5 anions was also confirmed by NMR). Oxidation potentials of the 9 anions were determined by cyclic voltammetry. It was concluded that the anions can be accumulated in the system when their oxidation potentials are less negative than −1.26 V vs. SCE. The prediction of the oxidation potentials and thus the accumulation of the anions were successfully carried out by calculating the HOMO energy levels of the model compounds with K counter cations at DFT–B3LYP (6-31G∗) level.
Non-platinum nanoparticles (Pd, Au, PdAu) have been prepared by sonochemical synthesis. The nanoparticle-modified electrodes showed improved catalytic activity for oxygen reduction compared with Pt nanoparticles in alkaline solution even in the presence of methanol.