The high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was applied to study microstructure and texture changes in the overburden layer as well as in upper and bottom parts of nano-scale damascene copper lines during annealing in a temperature range of 200–500°C. The microstructure in overburden layer was found to coarsen significantly at 200°C. At higher temperatures, however, it was established that the overburden layer and both parts of the lines were surprisingly stable. It was also shown that the microstructure in all studied regions was stabilized after achieving the same level of total grain-boundary area per unit volume. This observation has been interpreted as indirect evidence that grain growth behavior in the lines was governed by the pinning effect of second-phase particles entrapped during the electrodeposition process.
Stainless steel is preventive enough against rust, and is widely put to practical use because of the excellence in its material in aspects of sanitation. Junctions of the material change their color owing to high temperature in carrying out joining work by arc-welding. By performing the analysis of the portions where colors are changed and its execution together with high temperature accompanied with weldment, iron is isolated to be changed in its color. Based upon these results, a reagent with both higher safety and higher removal rate than conventional chemicals allowing change of color to be removed has been developed.
Two kinds of small-sized electrolyzed water generator to be driven with a dry cell were investigated for sterilization in homes. These generation devices were able to produce the electrolyzed water which was weak acidic electrolyzed water or ozonated water. The weak acidic electrolyzed water was manufactured with the electrolysis of mixed solution of sodium chloride and citric acid, and ozonated water was formed by SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolysis of pure water. In this paper, it was reported about ability of weak acidic electrolyzed water and ozonated water for generation, sterilizing property and safety as performance of generator.