Quaternary sediments and landforms in a small, mountain catchment (Silverhope drainage basin) provide a link with catastrophic outburst deposits in a neighbouring valley (Chilliwack River). The contiguous catchments are linked by a pass at 1015 masl, which represents the maximum elevation of the outburst conduit. During Cordilleran Ice Sheet decay, the normal meltwater drainage pathway to the south in Silverhope valley was blocked by a dead ice dam. The area covered by the resulting glacial lake Silverhope is suggested based on elevations of a raised delta, mass movement features, and glaciolacustrine sediments. Exposures near Hicks Creek-Post Creek pass are used to infer that lake levels were raised above the elevation of the divide by a second dead ice dam. Southsouthwest oriented paleoflow deposits covering glaciolacustrine sediments northeast of the pass, and clean bedrock faces southwest of it, suggest that the dead ice dam was situated at the divide. Consequent catastrophic discharges flowed down Post Creek into Chilliwack valley. Radiocarbon ages from Chilliwack valley, and outburst sediments deposited against the distal side of the end moraine that dams Chilliwack Lake are used to infer that outburst occurred about 11.4 ka.
Slash-and-burn cultivation (Swidden) formerly occurred Japan and Europe too, but today we can find it only in the Tropics which abound in forest resources. This study discusses slash-and-burn cultivation by analyzing the characteristics and recent changes among the minorities, especially the Jinuo, in Xishuangbanna Dai Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Xishuangbanna is located at the southwestern end on the borders of Burma (Myanmar) and Laos. The minorities in the mountainous regions place slash-and-burn cultivation at the centre of their living. Their agricultural systems, however, have been obliged to change because of the population growth since the 1950s. The decrease of the forest rate in Xishuangbanna has been caused by the population growth and the increase of the area used for slash-and-burn cultivation in the minority societies. The population growth is destructive to the sustainability of slash-and-burn cultivation, along with the introduction of the Responsibility System for Agricultural Production in the 1980s. Today, the minorities are keen on introducing cash crops on a large scale such as natural rubber, tea and herbs for Chinese medicines. Slash-and-burn cultivation is declining and the fields will change to permanently cultivated land in the near future.
Agricultural cooperativism, developed in rural Japan, was transferred to overseas Japanese communities and modified as an adaptive strategy to fit the local conditions of the host society. Before World War II, Japanese immigrants to the United States organized a substantial number of agricultural cooperatives in the farming districts of California where they specialized in intensive farming. The cooperatives that developed in this period were the farmers' survival mechanism in a hostile socio-economic environment. Prior to 1930, these ethnic agricultural cooperatives possessed socio-cultural importance in local farming communities of Japanese immigrants, but were economically less effective. In the 1930s and early 1940s, however, socio-economic conditions forced further cooperation. Local organizations took on the functions of real agricultural cooperatives while centralized and federated organizations were established to strengthen and coordinate the local bodies. In Sao Paulo, Brazil, ethnic cooperation, typified by numerous agricultural organizations, contributed significantly to the successful involvement of Japanese immigrants in intensive farming. However, the development and adaptation processes of Japanese agricultural cooperatives in California and Sao Paulo differed substantially from each other, reflecting the varied nature and conditions of the host societies, and thus suggesting the importance of contextually understanding immigrant agriculture and ethnic cooperativism.
Agriculture in the European Union (EU) is moving into a ‘post-productivist transition’. From a period of maximizing food output, farmers are being redirected to reduce their production, provide society with ‘environmental goods’ and create a more ‘sustainable’ agriculture. The motivations for this transition can be traced to the removal of food surpluses, control of the cost of subsidies to agriculture, and repair of environmental damage associated with productivist agriculture. This paper offers a perspective on the agricultural land-use implications of this redirection of EU agriculture by examining agricultural land use in the past (productivism), the present (post-productivist transition) and the future (post-productivism). Attention is directed to three changing land use dimensions: from intensification to extensification; from concentration to dispersion; and from specialisation to diversification. There are national, regional and local variations in these dimensions, but overall a more diversified land use structure is emerging within the EU. Non-food crops (including bio-fuel), forestry, set-aside, nature conservation and recreation are the main rural, rather than agricultural, land uses increasing in importance. Future rural land use trends will revolve around three processes: the extent of ‘surplus’ farmland in the EU, global competition in markets for food, and global climatic change. Much depends on the application of technological progress in the genetic engineering of crops and livestock, the international competitiveness of regional agricultural systems, and the international agricultural response to global climatic change.
In Japanese mountains, erosive force markedly increased after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition because of increased heavy rainfall, resulting in channel incision along hillslope hollows and tributaries. This paper investigates the process of channel incision in the Matsumoto Region of central Japan based on morphometry. Attention is directed toward the effects of headward erosion and channel widening on channel expansion. Channel length and area occupied by channels were measured for more than eight hundred 500×500m morpho-. metric samples taken from eight watersheds. Analyses of channel length and channel area based on location-for-time substitutions have revealed that channels develop through two stages. At the early stage, the channel length-channel area relation is expressed by a power function. The function indicates that headward erosion contributes to about 80 percent of the channel-area increase whereas channel widening contributes to about 20 percent. At the late stage, channel length tends to be unchanged owing to the stabilization of channel heads, and channel widening solely accounts for the channel-area increase. The stabilization of channel heads occurs when channel length has reached about 80 percent of total valley length. The ratio of 80 percent most likely represents a limit of channel elongation determined by the geomorphological and hydrological threshold of erosion.
Recent increase of newly-incoming foreign population has called attention to the issues of foreigners' living environment in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In order to obtain an empirical perspective on residential and social environments of foreign new comers in Tokyo, spatial relocation and selected friendship pattern of overstay foreign workers in the inner area Tokyo were examined. Data collected through a questionnaire survey suggested firstly that residential relocation patterns of the survey respondents was conditioned largely by such intertwining factors as the extent of cohesive ethnic network, degrees of individual adjustment, potential job opportunities and politico-economic marginal status. While ethnic information network was apparently the dominant influence on spatial structure of their movements, the latter two components functioned as deeper-rooted structural determinants of potential field of migration. In regard to the pattern of their social interaction, cohesive ethnic networks were identified; they were not necessarily confined to local neighborhoods but rather extended spatially, even though the intensity of association is substantially conditioned by spatial distance between individuals. For an understanding of such network type ethnic communities, elaborations of “classical” normative expectations, which are predicated a conceptual foundation that simply correlates social and spatial distances, seem to be integral to an analtical framework of ethnic segregation in Tokyo.
The large business corporation as an object of geographical study is related to industrial and retailing geography. Its role in the business school curriculum is discussed. The topic is given systematic treatment: location factors, location decision, spatial strategy, production system, corporate restructuring, administrative setup and spatial competition.
The main purpose of this study is to sum up the Hungarian reception of a multinational company, Suzuki, and its impact on the local economic and social surroundings in the town Esztergom. This research is the first experiment in Hungary to reveal the impact of large investment primarily on the local-social economic surroundings, because during the socialist period researchers have investigated the impact of large investments mainly on the physical environment. This investigation, concluded in 1992, is also important because after 1989, with the increase of the consciousness of responsibility for the geographical surroundings the population reacts more and more actively to technical establishments. By the survey it has become obvious that Suzuki's large investment has been well received and it has had significant effects on the economic and social development of the town Esztergom.
Downstream variations in clast size were examined in Silverhope Creek, a tributary of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. A sedimentary environment inherited largely from Cordilleran Ice Sheet decay dominates the present fluvial regime. Hummocky terrain in the southern part of the catchment produces distinct grainsize fluctuations over several km that are related to local changes in the sedimentary regime during deglaciation. Similarly, relict mass movement features impart grainsize variations of a glacigenic origin on the bed material. Sediment input primarily from western tributaries produces local downstream coarsening. Landslide-damming of Silver Lake about 1100 years ago provides a local base level in the northern half of the catchment. Fining associated with aggradation upstream and coarsening associated with degradation downstream also interrupt the expected trend toward downstream diminution in clast size. Geomorphic activity of anthropogenic origin is subordinate to that generated by natural processes. Sediment input shows greater bimodality in more recently-logged tributaries. Bimodality of sediment input has declined over a period of 5-10 years following the cessation of logging activity in the tributary. The main reason for a decline in bimodality is forest regrowth and valley side stabilisation. However, sedimentation rates in Silver Lake remain high indicating that the quantity of sediment input as a result of tree removal may remain high in the long term, whereas change in sediment quality (bimodality) is a short term factor.
After World War II Japan faced the simultaneous problems of food shortages and flood hazards. To resolve these problems, agricultural and civil engineers were requested to obtain information on alluvial plains which provide land for major food production in the Japanese Islands. Fortunately, Japanese geographers had already begun to study the alluvial plains as depositional geomorphology, greatly aided by the availability of aerial photographs. These circumstances gave birth to the Geomorphological Survey Map Showing Classification of Flood Stricken Areas. The maps enable us to estimate the features of flooding not only of the past but also of the future. The reason why such a survey map serves the purpose of defining the type of flood is that the irregular surface of the plain, however slight, as well as the sandy and gravelly deposits, were formed by repeated floods. Consequently, the micro-topography of the plain, i.e., fans, natural levees, deltas, etc. tell the history of past floods. From this point of view, the author compiled the first “Topographical Survey Map of the Kiso River Basin (Nobi Plain) Showing Classification of Flood Stricken Areas” in 1956. The accuracy of the map was actually confirmed by the high tide caused by the Typhoon Ise-Bay in 1959, i.e., three years after the preparation of the map. The results of the flood were almost the same as those predicted by the map. It is especially noteworthy that the area of invasion of flooding, caused by the high tide, coincides exactly with the delta area. This close relationship between high tide and geomorphology is manifested in many other cases, for example, in the routes of high tides and features of flooding in each geomorphological unit. Utilizing the combination of geomorphological units, the flood type is classified into the following three types: overflow type, concentration type, and a combination type. An example of the overflow type is seen in the lower reaches of the Kiso River and Han River, the concentration type in the Chikugo River, and the combination type in the Vientiane Plain along the Mekong River. The map is useful for estimating not only flooding but also soil liquefaction sites caused by earthquakes, and for the selection of bridge sites.