The No.15 pit dwelling of Tokorogawa Kakou Site (in Tokoro-cho, Kitami-shi, Hokkaido, Japan) is a large-sized one of the Okhotsk culture time. This was detected by the investigation in Heisei 2 (1990). It is a destruction-by-fire dwelling and building. Materials and the tool remained very well. While dividing the zone in a dwelling, a resident’s unit group was extracted. And it has spread as a model of the large-sized dwelling of this time. This is reconsidered about resident’s group’s relation based on the remains distribution in a dwelling.
The author has been making efforts to understand the culture, society and economy of indigenous people of Kamchatka through field surveys since 1997. Especially from the view point of cultural contact I have been interested in the historical change of indigenous society by the effect of Japanese fishery which lasted from early 19th century to August of 1945, and also in the change of indigenous society under the post-socialism system after the “perestroika”. Reindeer herding had been one of the indigenous subsistence in Kamchatka. After the foundation of Soviet Union, reindeer herding was adopted as a main industry for collective farms and state farms in Kamchatka. However, reindeer herding industry in Kamchatka was on the decline due to the effect of the collapse of the Soviet system, mainly caused by losing its support as a subsidy of the government.
In 2006, a new project to recover reindeer herding industry as a subsidy was started. I think this subsidizing would grow reindeer herding for a time, however it is difficult to say that the reindeer herding industry would take a favorable tum in the future, since the reindeer herding industry was never a real market in the past or present. In this paper, I would like to discuss the status of reindeer herding as a traditional subsistence among indigenous economies through analyses of past and present of reindeer herding industry in Kamchatka.
Day-trip herding is one of the important tasks for pastoral peoples. However, information about these tasks, especially of the taiga type reindeer herders has been seldom reported in the past. In this report, the author presents data for reindeer day-trip herding, livestock leading methods and behavior of the reindeer in the Tsaatan’s autumn pasture in northwestern part of Mongolia.
In day-trip herding reindeer are lead to the pasture every morning, and retrieved back to the camp site every evening. Livestock are lead by 2-3 herders through different stimuli such as using different kinds of voices, whistling, and hitting them with sticks. Most of the stimuli induce the reindeer to run away, but some are to call them. In addition, these stimuli are used more frequently when herding reindeer compared with stimuli used in goat and sheep herding observed in Africa.
In autumn pasture, reindeer are grazed two by two. This is done to restrict their mobility and to prevent fawns from suckling. For that purpose, does and fawns are paired off into couples. Reindeer are not always formed in a dense flock in the pasture. They start in a large group, then disperse into smaller groups while grazing, and gradually gather in large flocks again, repeatedly parting and rejoining. In addition, during most of the grazing time flocks keep still in the pasture area although the pasture is not enclosed by fences or walls. There seem to be the ridges around the pasture that play a role for enclosure.
Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples intend to clarify the relations to Okhotsk Culture and Satsumon Culture on the beginning of establishment. We are surveying Notoro Cape West Coast site of Okhotsk Culture since 2005. In this main report, a summary of the excavation research in our 2005, 2006 field seasons is reported.
At this site, we excavated about 50 m2 in the two field seasons. We found 1 house pit in our excavation area, some 1. 5 m in depth.
Judging from some shards of the pottery founded on the floor, this house seems to belong to early part of the Okhotsk Culture. Althauyh the ground plan of this house is not clear as yet, probably hexagonal in plan. On the floor, we found many carbonized logs, which might be have been used for materials of wall structure. Furthermore, judging from the condition of wall side, this house might be reconstructed.
This paper presents Dr. Hattori’s records which show the Nivkh’s needlework stitch. Dr. Hattori Takeshi (1901-1991), was a Nivkh (Gilyak) language linguist.
In 1994, Dr. Hattori’s collection of books, notebooks, voice tapes, microfilms, and photos were filed and stored in the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples. The collection includes Nivkh needlework stitch names and stitch samples (reference number
Hisao Tanabe (1883-1984) was a one of famous ethnomusicologist in Japan. He studied Japanese and Asian music. He researched music of Karafuto(Sakhalin) Ainu, Nivkh (Gilyak) and Uilta, too. He had been Karafuto (Sakhalin) in 1923, and he studied and recorded Karafuto( Sakhalin) indigenous peoples’ music. India musicologist Mr. Hideo Tanabe who is Hisao’s son entrusted some materials of Hisao’s musical trip in Karafuto to a director of Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples, Kazuyuki Tanimoto, and then those objects was stocked in the museum.
This paper presents these materials which show music of indigenous peoples in Karafuto (Sakhalin) and his trip. Some articles have explanations and photos.
This is a report about the collection which Mr. Hiroshi TERADA had purchased and has been stored in the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples. This collection is composed of Ainu artifacts and books related to northern indigenous peoples. Mr. TERADA was born in 1933 in Niigata prefecture, and graduated from the department of veterinary, Hokkaido University in 1957. He worked at the Nichiro
Fur Co., ltd. a mink farm in Abashiri as an executive from 1960 to 1993. He had been interested in Ainu Culture and collected a lot of artifacts and books from antique or souvenir shops and used-book stores. He passed away in 2003. Most of his collection was sold and donated to the Hokkaido Museum of Northern Peoples.