International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development
Online ISSN : 2433-3700
Print ISSN : 2185-159X
ISSN-L : 2185-159X
Volume 6 , Issue 1
Showing 1-32 articles out of 32 articles from the selected issue
  • ATTY TRI JUNIARTI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study examined the phenomenon of production and competition of the garment Industry in Indonesia. Indonesian garment products have not been competitive in the international market. The quality of the resulting garment products have not been able to comply with the international quality standards. In addition, Indonesia has not been included in the Trans-Pacific Partnership community that provides reduction of import duties for its member. This research extends the work performed by other researchers by performing the study in a diferent environment not studied before and by expanding the environment dimension. The study used the management approach and integrating the strategic management, operation management, human resource management and marketing management. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse 1) The external environment, operation strategy and corporate performance of Indonesian garment industry; 2) The influence of external environment towards operation strategy; and 3) The influence of operation strategy towards the corporate performance. The types of this research are descriptive and verificative while the methods used both descriptive and explanatory surveys. Using the random sampling technique from collection data, the sample size were 71 companies with 395 respondences which consist 71 operation managers, 71 agents and 253 employees. The using interview as a technique from collection data with three questionaire models. The data collected at February until July 2013, using the descriptive analysis and path analysis. The results show 1) The external environment (supplier, technology, and consumer), operation strategy and company performance generally good enough; 2) The external environment have significant influence simultaneously and partially towards operation strategy, the consumer influence on the operating strategy is greater than the influence of technology and suppliers; 3) The operation strategy have a significant influence towards corporate performance and the operating strategy has a huge influence on company performance and there is any other influence.

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  • AYAKO SEKIYAMA, SAWAHIKO SHIMADA, MICHINARI YOKOHAMA, HIROMICHI TOYODA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 7-15
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this research is to develop a method that will allow remotely sensed data to be used for estimating soil moisture and distinguishing vegetated and bare ground areas in Mongolia. The study was conducted in central Mongolia, where climate conditions and human impacts are resulting in degradation of grassland and damage to grazing stock. The method employed was a pattern decomposition method using flat pattern model for estimation soil moisture, which is developed by authors. A total of ten survey plots were established in grasslands, and a spectroradiometer was used to measure spectral characteristics of the soil in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Spectral reflectance of the soil was measured, and used to derive the pattern decomposition coefficient and estimate soil moisture. These results were then compared to actual field measurements of soil moisture to verify the accuracy of the method. In addition, photographic images were used to estimate the vegetation coverage for each survey plot, and the effects on vegetation on the accuracy of soil moisture were examined. The results showed a strong negative correlation between water content in soil and the pattern decomposition coefficient for flat model, indicating that this method is capable of accurately estimating soil moisture regardless of soil type. A strong correlation was also found between the vegetation coverage and the pattern decomposition coefficient for vegetation, suggesting that the method can be used to estimate vegetation coverage. A high level of accuracy, however, was achieved only for bare ground, indicating that the vegetation reflectance influences the spectral reflectance of the soil, and the current method is thus not applicable to vegetated areas.

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  • XIN HE, TAKASHI INOUE
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 16-21
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Long-term monitoring of shallow groundwater table (GWT) is essential for the evaluation of hydrologic conditions of peatlands, which is meaningful for their conservation and restoration, especially in certain rural areas. Although there has been research in this field, a simple and effective method for the evaluation of GWT fluctuation has not been developed. Peatland Tank Model (PTM) is a one-dimensional water balance model that represents fluctuations of shallow GWT in peatland. The model contains several parameters, i.e., C (coefficient of GWT increase), Ai (coefficient for the size of plugholes, with i =1, 2, 3), and HAi (coefficient for the height of each plughole, i =1, 2, 3). We used PTM with 29 years’ GWT data from Ochiai, Sarobetsu Mire, northern Hokkaido, Japan. These GWT data do not have a height reference from a benchmark, so that the data have no common meaning or information in relation to the ground surface or elevation above sea level. Observation was conducted at three sites; Site D near a drainage ditch along a peat mining location; Site M at the edge of the peat mining area; and Site U in an unused area far from the drainage. A few sets of parameters were obtained on the basis of simulation results. Smaller simulation errors were attained using the PTM. The 29-year GWT fluctuations at Site D were the greatest and could be characterized by the largest parameter values. Parameter trends at three sites varied, and were able to reflect the various drainage conditions. Thus, the PTM is a promising method for the evaluation of long-term variations and site differences of hydrologic conditions in peatland.

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  • SOEUNG LYLY, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, THAM HOANG
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 22-27
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The protection of aquatic habitat from damage and understanding of both sensitivity of aquatic organisms to contaminant and ecological effects. Mekong River quality criteria of aquatic life for metals are largely driven by the extremely sensitive small organisms toxicity which are the Mekong native species. In this study we assessed the toxicity of Copper in the Mekong river water with Chironomids Species (Chironomus javanus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Acute toxicity effect of copper concentration to freshwater animals occur after the exposure at tested with Mekong water was studied by observing mortality and LC50 over a 24 hours test period. The LC50 with 95% confidence limit of the 96-hours toxicity was performed to contrast responses of Chironomids Species (C. javanus) and Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). The result showed that the LC50 with 95% confidence limit obtained were 742μg/L in Chironomids Species (C. javanus) and 853μg/L in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Copper (Cu) is a big concern for environment, human and aquatic organisms because it can accumulate in to plant and animals via food web. The out coming of this series of laboratory experiment will provides a worst-case scenario and useful for determine the risk assessment of copper on local freshwater organisms in Mekong River Cambodia as well as Mekong River Basin.

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  • OROSE RUGCHATI, KANITA THANACHAROENCHANAPHAS
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 28-33
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Starch sample obtained from water yam (mun lued) by wet milling process. Yam starch films were prepared by thermal gelatinization technique casting using glycerol as plasticizer. The effect of different glycerol (1.65 and 2.00 g/100 g of filmogenic solution) starch concentration (3.30 g/100 g of filmogenic solution) was evaluated for some characteristic of these films. The effect of different surfactant Span80 (1 ml/100 g of filmogenic solution) and Tween 20 (1.5 ml/100 g of filmogenic solution) was studied. Suitable characteristic of biodegradable film from yam starch are glycerol 1.65 and span 80 (1 ml/100 g) as filmogenic formulation. The temperature for obtaining gelatinized starch solution was 70-80 °C and then dried at 45 °C for 4 hours. Film sample was molding in plastic bag form by simple sealing machine in average size 6x9 square inch. The samples expected to be applied as agriculture bag for agriculture activity. As a result, the appearance of film sample was smooth, transparence and glossy, with average moisture content of 25.96% and thickness of 0.01 mm. Puncture deformation and flexible increased with glycerol content. The starch and glycerol concentration were significant factors for yam starch film characteristic. Surfactant Span80 increased smoother and reduce sticky properties of film than Tween 20. Yam starch film as biofilms could be applied and developed in qualities, and with the advantage of biodegradability.

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  • PHRUEKSA LAWONGSA, PIROMYA MANEEWONG, NARUEMON NAKSRI, TIPPAWAN PROMCH ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 34-39
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Spent wash liquor (or Distillery Slop) is an agro-industrial wastes generated during alcohol distillery production. Its application to the soil for agriculture is highly beneficial due to rich in plant nutrients, organic carbon, less toxic and easily amenable for microorganisms. An advantage is made to direct apply the spent wash liquor as a supplement fertilizer to enhance crop yield in agricultural field. Therefore, long-term effects of spent wash liquor on soil bacterial population in agricultural crop production system is still poorly understood. In this research, the effect of long-term application of spent wash liquor on bacterial decomposers was investigated in sugar cane production systems in Nam Phong watershed. Eight treatments in this research including soil with no spent wash liquor applied (control), soil applied with spent wash liquor for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 years were conducted. The results showed that bacterial population at 1 year after application was significantly higher than those from control soil then, the population declined until 8 years after application the population can reach up to 2.04 x 106 CFU/g soil. This study suggested that application of spent wash liquor can affect the bacterial decomposer under sugar cane field. However, the application of spent wash liquor need to be tested in longer time under farmer’s field conditions before further recommendation can be given.

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  • SARAWUT DEEPROM, VIDHAYA TRELO-GES, BUBPHA TOPARK-NGARM, SAMANG HOMCHU ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 40-45
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This research is aimed to documenting the diversity of plant species that are found on slightly saline soils in the Chi river basin of Northeast Thailand. Both in the dry and the rainy seasons of 2013, plant surveys were conducted at selected sites in three provinces (Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, and Kalasin) by using a quadrat sampling technique. Soils under the dominant plant species were collected for physical and chemical analyses. From the study, a total of 155 plant species belonging to the 72 families were recorded. Five of those were classified as halophytes, and included Azima sarmentosa, Maytenus diversifolia, Synostema bacciformis, Pluchea indica and Gisekia pharnaceoides. The dominant species in the selected sites of three provinces were Cynodon dactylon, Heliotropium indicum, Melochia corchorifolia, Ageratum conyzoides, Coldenia procumben, Glinus oppositifolius and Panicum repens, respectively. In the dry season, the average soil electrical conductivity under the dominant plant species at Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen and Kalasin provinces were 2.52, 0.7 and 0.54 dS/m, respectively. In the rainy season, the averaged soil electrical conductivity under the dominant plant species were decreased to 0.61, 0.37 and 0.14 dS/m in Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen and Kalasin provinces, respectively. In all studied areas during in both seasons, the amounts of exchangeable sodium were in the same direction as the values of electrical conductivity. Soil pH values at all studied areas in both seasons were in an acidic condition. However, the pH values were lower in the dry season than in the rainy season. Soil moisture under the dominant plant species was higher in the rainy season than that in the dry season.

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  • TAKAHIKO KUBODERA, HIROMU OKAZAWA, YOSHIHARU HOSOKAWA, MASAHIRO TASUMI ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 46-50
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Contents of the survey education conducted in civil engineering departments of universities in Tokyo were investigated by using their syllabus, to grasp the current state of survey education in Japan. As a result, in the order of the number of departments that teach the particular items, “Theory of error”, “Traversing”, “Leveling”, “Plate table surveying”, “Global positioning System (GPS) surveying”, “Photogrammetry”, “Geographic Information Systems (GIS)” and “Remote sensing”. It was found that land-based surveying techniques, such as “Traversing”, “Leveling” and “Plate table surveying”, were treated preferentially over aerial-data based surveying, such as “GPS surveying”, “Photogrammetry” and “Remote sensing”. Furthermore, to grasp the items taught as university course content reflect the techniques actually used in work situations, the content of 6 textbooks used for lectures at the universities was investigated by comparing with the General Standard of Operation Specifications for Public Surveys (General Standard). The General Standard is used as the model standard when surveying companies work actually. As a result, not many textbooks cover such operationally demanded techniques. As other problems; given that the latest technique may be a major technique in the future, it is necessary to teach the latest survey techniques. The latest techniques, which have not been described as survey items in the General Standard, were also investigated, such as “Mobile Mapping System (MMS)”, “3-D laser scanners” and “Photogrammetry with satellite imagery”. So as to improve these problems, the authors developed a new textbook for teaching surveying based on an investigation of courses offered in the survey departments of universities. In the developed textbook, the survey techniques described in the General Standard and the latest techniques are included.

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  • TAKAHIKO KUBODERA, HIROMU OKAZAWA, YOSHIHARU HOSOKAWA, MASAHIRO TASUMI ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 51-57
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The license acquisition system of surveyors in Japan is composed by two levels of national license; the surveyor and the assistant surveyor. The survey Act, which determines the qualifying standard for licensing, accept several routes for acquiring the license, depending on the situations of applicants. Two primary route of license acquisition are by passing the national qualifying examination and by graduating at designated universities, junior colleges, technical colleges and technical schools. The circumstances of surveyor license acquisition system in Japan were investigated from the Survey Act and the national qualifying examination. It became clear that the surveyor has been required the new technologies and a wide range knowledge for survey. So as to clarify the abilities of the surveyors who passed the national qualifying examination and of those who graduated from the above university or technical school, the ability verification test of assistant surveyors was given. As a result, it can be said that the former group performed better than the latter. In order to reduce the difference of difficulties for license acquisition, the contents of current survey educations in higher education should be improved. This paper presented the circumstances of the national license in Japan, including the details of the national qualifying examination and other routes of the license acquisition, and indicated the problems.

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  • RUNGKAN KLAHAN, BANYAT SIRITHANAWONG
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 58-62
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to determine the effect of bromelain extracted from the crown of pineapple supplemented in diet on growth performance and feed utilization of common lowland frog. Diets were isonitrogenous at 35% protein and 3,000 KcalKg-1 supplemented at 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mL bromelain extraction g-1 of feed. Frog with an initial weight of 0.25 ± 0.1 g were fed on feed trial in triplicate groups for 120 days. The results showed that the enzyme extracts did not effect growth performance but enhancement the survival rate with all levels (P<0.05) especially at 1 mL/g feed had the highest feed utilization and protein efficiency ratio (PER). The percentage of edible flesh of 0, 0.5 and 1 mL/g feed group were higher than the 0.25 mL/g feed group. These results demonstrated that bromelain extracted supplementation of all levels improved survival rate and feed utilization and PER especially at 1 mL/g feed.

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  • SAMUEL J. GULAYAN, JESRELLJANE AARON-AMPER, EDLIN RENE B. HANDUGAN
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 63-68
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    National government issued an Executive Order 26, series of 2011 – declaring interdepartmental convergence initiative for national greening program. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources commissioned the Bohol Island State University (BISU) Candijay Campus to facilitate the rehabilitation of degraded mangrove areas in coordination with local government units and in partnership of mangrove planters in Northeastern Bohol. Hence, the main objective of the study was to to document the progress and accomplishment of mangrove rehabilitation project in Northeastern Bohol, Philippines. Survived mangroves were counted manually. Principal branch of mangrove was measured to determine the growth performance in 12 months. Identified the sea shells for baseline information and interviewed the mangrove planters for determining the problems. In this study, a 48.36% survival rate was found out after one year of planting. The average growth (in height) was 6.097 cm per month. The Municipality of Candijay had the highest growth rate. Terebralia sp. (Dao-dao) and Narita sp. (Sihi) are the common sea shells found in the reforested areas. Proper selection of site is important before planting Rhizophora sp.

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  • SOPHY CHES, YAMAJI EIJI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 69-74
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    One of the main reasons of food shortage in some areas of Cambodia is low productivity. Conventional farming practice is believed to cause the low yield. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) proved to increase the yield has been introduced and practiced in Cambodia. Therefore, it is very interesting to research whether SRI farmers are able to share their contributions to the market since SRI can provide higher yields. This study aims to assess whether SRI farmers can contribute their products to the markets that are still immature and inaccessible. A households survey and field observations were conducted in three rain-fed villages in the southern part of Cambodia: two in Kampot Province and one in Kampon Speu Province. Findings revealed that besides the sufficiency of self-consumption, most of selected farmers are able to sell products to the markets and based on the expenditure on agricultural input and income analyses, farmer could earn profits although labor is the highest cost. It was also found that prices set by middlemen in the village are slightly cheaper than the one set on the market. However, farmers agree to sell to middle men because they would spend more on transportation and labor fee if they wanted to sell directly to the market. Importantly, collective sale in a large amount helps farmers to get higher prices compared to an individual sale. Results also indicate that practicing SRI positively increases the household’s production and leads to the increase of village production, possibly also to national level production, therefore, the surplus can be contributed to the rice markets.

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  • TOSHIMI MUNEOKA, YURI YAMAZAKI, SACHIYO WAKOU, MASATO KIMURA, OSAMU TS ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 75-79
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Japan has general environmental standards for organic matter in its public water bodies. However, there are no environmental standards for nutrient salts such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in river water. In this study, the water quality of rivers at normal water level was evaluated in agricultural watersheds by focusing on water quality standards. The investigated sites are in the Tokachi area (24 watersheds; upland and dairy farming) and the Nemuro area (11 watersheds; large-scale dairy farming), which are in Eastern Hokkaido. The investigations were carried out in the two agricultural areas in 2005, 2006 and 2012. Electrical conductivity (EC) and water temperature were measured at the same time as river water samples were collected in the two areas. Water quality was analyzed for potential of hydrogen (pH), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (T-P), total nitrogen (T-N) and other values. Most of the values associated with organic matter, such as pH, BOD and SS, in river water were within the thresholds for the standards of The Environmental Standards Concerning the Conservation of the Living Environment (Rivers). In contrast, some values of nutrient salts (N and P) exceeded the thresholds (T-P≦0.1 mg/L, T-N≦1.0 mg/L). Many of the watersheds in the Tokachi area had T-N concentration in excess of 1.0 mg/L. This suggests that the concentrations of nutrient salts (P and N) increase with increases in agricultural land development in a watershed. For the evaluation of river water quality in agricultural watersheds, it was found to be necessary to measure both organic matter and nutrient salts as indices of water quality. And it was found that controlling the runoff of P and N from agricultural land is essential for water quality conservation in public water bodies.

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  • YURI YAMAZAKI, TOSHIMI MUNEOKA, SACHIYO WAKOU, MASATO KIMURA, OSAMU TS ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 80-85
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Tokachi and Nemuro areas are large-scale agricultural land, and are located in Eastern Hokkaido. Increases in nitrogen concentrations in the river water caused by the outflow of excess nitrogen from an agricultural land in the Tokachi and Nemuro area have been reported. Here we considered the characteristics of the origin of river water quality with multivariate analysis and piper diagram in the Tokachi and Nemuro areas with different agricultural land use. The main agricultural land uses in the Tokachi area are upland and dairy farming. It is an area mainly of dairy farming in the Nemuro area. The investigation was carried out in late August 2005. We analyzed the following ion parameters: Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO3-, PO43-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ by liquid chromatography. NO3- and SO42- were higher in the Tokachi area; the values of NO3- and SO42- were 0.71-31 mg/L and 1.9-39 mg/L in the Tokachi area and 0.44-9.7 mg/L and 2.0-19 mg/L respectively. On the other hand, HCO3- and Na+ were higher in the Nemuro area; 6.4-31 mg/L and 3.3-9.9 mg/L in the Tokachi area and 13- 42 mg/L and 5.8-15 mg/L in the Nemuro area respectively. The plot in piper diagram showed that most of the river water samples in the Tokachi area fall in the field of mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type of water. Some samples are also representing Ca-Cl and Ca-HCO3 types. The most of the samples in the Nemuro area fall in the field of Ca-HCO3 types, and some samples also representing Na-Cl types. This result suggests that the outflow of excess nitrogen from the agricultural land affected river water quality in the Tokachi area while the mixing of seawater and geological component affected river water quality in the Nemuro area.

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  • AYA KANEKO IKAWA, MACHITO MIHARA, YUTA ISHIKAWA, SERGIO AZAEL MAY CUEV ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 86-90
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Soil erosion from upland fields affects not only soil productivity but also water environment. From the viewpoints of soil and water conservation, many strategies for mitigation of soil erosion were discussed. Especially, conservation strategy for mitigating splash erosion which is the first process of soil erosion should be considered. Moreover, biological crust mixing with microorganisms has been focused as one of the treatments for splash erosion. Therefore, two objectives were determined in this study. The first is to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto adding on mitigating splash erosion, and the second is to investigate the kinetic energy of raindrop to break the binding force of soil particles with hyphae of Bacillus subtilis Natto. Raindrop experiment was carried out with stainless cans and Mariotte bottle of splash erosion apparatus. Stainless cans were filled with soil, and then Bacillus subtilis Natto was applied. In addition, raindrop energy was changed through controlling the height of Mariotte bottle. Based on the experimental results, there was a tendency that soil loss from the cans applied Bacillus subtilis Natto was significantly lower than controlled cans. In addition, it was observed that Bacillus subtilis Natto mitigated splash erosion until kinetic energy of raindrop at 4.86×10-5 J/drop. Therefore, it was concluded that Bacillus subtilis Natto is applicable for mitigation of splash erosion.

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  • HISASHI MORI, AWADH KISHOR SAH, BHUWNESHWAR PRASAD SAH, MINAMI YAMAYA, ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 91-96
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Considering Philippines’s well defined commitment toward social forestry system since 1970s, we examined its purpose of contribution, motivation and achievement toward reforestation and forest conservation through interviews with related stakeholders, as well as decadal forest cover changes by analyzing the forest type classification map of two different period of time which were prepared based on Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) image data and field sampling. EOS based forest cover change analysis, coupled with field sampling and stakeholder consultation, resulted into definitive facts and figures, which can be used for reforestation and forest conservation decision making process.

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  • KIICHIRO HAYASHI, MAKOTO OOBA, YASUHIRO HASEGAWA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 97-102
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    One of the categories included in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) developed in 2005 is cultural ecosystem services (CESs), which includes a variety of factors such as aesthetic values, recreation and ecotourism. In order to assess the CESs, a simple questionnaire survey was conducted in a semi-mountainous rural town in Japan. The town of Inabu in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, was selected for the case study. The face-to-face (FTF) survey was conducted from October to November 2012 and prioritized forest-related sites in the town. According to the results, aesthetic values received the highest score among the CESs, followed by recreation and ecotourism, while each forest-related site had a different combination of CES values. By using cluster analysis, three clusters were identified: aesthetic values, recreation and ecotourism, and ‘others’. In some sites, the CES scores differed between residents and visitors such that residents recognized a wider variety of CES than visitors did.

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  • BUNNA CHEA, THEARY HOUT, SEREY MOB, KOUCH THENG, MOM SENG
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 103-107
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    As cultivated areas in Cambodia have increased, feed resources for feeding and grazing cattle have decreased significantly. Plantings of yellow corn, however, have increased substantially, in particular, in the north-west of Cambodia; consequently, a huge amount of corn residue is being produced but remains unused, despite offering potential as a cattle feed, particularly after ensiling. The aim of this study was to identify nutritive value and palatability of corn stover silage for cattle feeding. Corn stover was chopped at approximate 4 to 6 cm in length and ensilaged with different treatments as follows: 15% water (CSN), 3% salt+15% water (CSSa), 3% sugar palm+15% water (CSSu), and 10% rice bran+15% water (CSRB). Cattle were adapted over a 5 day periods and 1 kg of each silage was offered to each animal. The result shown that crude protein content in silage increased on average from 6.41 to 9.7%. Within the treatments the chemical composition of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter, ash and crude fiber were similar. However, the intake of silage was significantly different. Cattle consumed more CSSu (177.88 gDM) than the other types of silages and ate about 100 gDM or less. CSSa was the lowest intake. In conclusion, sugar (palm sugar) should be added to reach carbohydrate requirement in order to help the silage fermentation process as the stover was mature with high DM% and needed additional flavour added to the silage.

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  • JESRELLJANE AARON-AMPER, JOSUEH M. GULAYAN, CHRISTOPHER OLAVIDES, SAMU ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 108-113
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Municipality of Panglao has been experiencing constant pressures caused by human and natural factor that affect the resources within the municipality particularly the reefs. Reefs are underwater structures created by the growth of corals. It has the highest gross of primary productivity in marine systems. However, sustainable practices to maintain the state and well-being of reefs have been largely ignored. Transplanting coral fragments or ramets is one way of restoring damaged portion of reefs. Hence, this study aims to determine the survival and growth rates of ramets in a table type framework deployed at 5, 10, and 20 m depth in three months. Coral fragments found scattered on the reef bottoms were cut into smaller fragments (ramets). There were 16 ramets attached in a single coral nursery unit. One hundred forty three representing three levels of depths and three replicates per depth. Monitoring was conducted monthly. The survivorship of Acropora nobilis was found out to be at 88.7%. Ramets had overgrown the plastic cable ties as well as steel bars indicating three dimensional growths. The growth rate of the ramets were high but there was no significant difference found with depth (p=0.066). The highest growth rate was found out to be at 20 m, with a mean growth rate of 0.81 cm mo-1. The high survival and growth rate of A. nobilis proves that it is a good species for coral reef restoration in Panglao, Bohol.

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  • MERRIAN PIQUERO SOLIVA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 114-119
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study investigated the influence of the learners’ attitude, perceived satisfaction and perceived e-Learning effectiveness, on their intention to continue using the ATI’s e-Learning program for agriculture and fishery in the Philippines. This study was conducted in the 16 regions of the Philippines where the ATI Network of Regional Training Centers were located. The respondents included 960 adult-learners, consisting of e-Learning enrollees and e-Learning graduates from 2009 to 2012. More than half, (58.9%) of the respondents were females, and nearly two-thirds (66.1%) were married. Their age level ranged from 16 to 63 years old with a mean age of 36 years old. More than half (56%) of the respondents were college graduates. More than two-thirds (67.9%) were agricultural extension workers and had a fair experience with e-Learning. They believed that the ATI's e-learning System is well-established, secure and stable. In its entirety, the respondents were satisfied with the course lab used by ATI. They preferred that a multi-media instruction would be used and recognized that the e-Learning system quality and the interactive learning activities of the program are important. The respondents pointed out that operating e-Learning boosted their self-efficacy/confidence and that the e-learning system is effective because it facilitated their learning efficiency, performance and motivation. They intended to continue the use of the ATI's e-Learning program because they could access a wide array of free digital resources like the course materials used that were placed online and the instructions provided were clear and easy to understand. It enhanced their knowledge and skills that are relevant to their field of specialization. They perceived the course contents as sufficient and related to their interests and they could easily contact the online support team anywhere to answer their queries. In addition, they perceived the instructions provided as sufficiently clear and easy to understand. Learners’ ability towards the e-learning program, as well as their perceived satisfaction and effectiveness of the program were significantly related with their intention to continue using the ATI’s e-Learning program.

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  • YAMAMOTO TADAO
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 120-125
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Japan, green tourism (rural tourism) continues to grow in popularity. This form of tourism is expected to increase the nation’s interest in agriculture and promote more interactions between urban and rural people. In Hokkaido, school trips that include hands-on agricultural activities are becoming widely accepted as a new type of green tourism. However, despite wide acceptance, the effects of these trips and related hands-on activities have not been sufficiently evaluated. In this research, the author investigated the educational benefits of school-trip-style green tourism. Surveys were conducted on students from three high schools (n = 597 students) after they had participated in school trips in 2013. The surveys showed that students without any past experience in agriculture tended to have stronger positive feelings towards agricultural activities and farmers. In addition, students also became more interested in becoming farmers in the future. Moreover, because of such visits, the students showed increased interest in food and crops. However, their awareness of agricultural water-use facilities, management organization, and the multifunctional benefits of agriculture was low; this lack of awareness was not related to previous agricultural experience. Therefore, to understand the fundamental benefits of agriculture, simple hands-on activities are not enough. In addition, the program must include lectures that explicitly demonstrate how agriculture preserves natural resources, contributes to a green society, and feeds the nation.

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  • RIAME T. TUICO, JOCELYN P. LUMACTUD, EVANGIELYN P. LUMANTAS, DHOREE MA ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 126-131
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study was conducted to assess the sanitation and solid waste management (SWM) programs and its practices implemented by the Municipality of Balilihan, Bohol during the Academic Year 2013-2014. This study used the descriptive-survey method with the aid of a researcher’s made questionnaire which was administered to 1,152 respondents representing 31 barangays of Balilihan. Based on the result, it was found out that most of the respondents oftentimes practice the proper SWM and the programs are oftentimes observed. In terms of Sanitation, majority of the respondents always practice the proper way and the programs are always observed. The conclusions revealed that SWM programs and SWM practices have a consistent result of oftentimes observed and oftentimes practiced. These simply explained that the programs and measures were known to some respondents and some did not give attention to support the programs. Sanitation programs and practices were also consistent of always observed and always practiced. The result shows that the residents nowadays learned to care for sanitation unlike in the past where sanitation was given less attention. It is recommended that the Local Government Unit of Balilihan should collaborate with other stakeholders for public campaigns on proper sanitation and SWM practices. Also, strict monitoring and evaluation should be developed to provide clear strategic direction to Local Integrated Solid Waste Management and procurement of additional vehicles to enhance the efficiency in the garbage collection. Another, that activities such as Barangay Participatory Evaluation and Assessment, House-to-House Campaign, convene the residents for an Orientation Seminar on solid waste segregation, Posting of streamers, posters, house tags and bill boards should be undertaken to raise awareness on solid waste management and encourage the public to recycle recyclable items.

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  • JOSE T. TRAVERO, MACHITO MIHARA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 132-137
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper presents a part of a bigger research project to validate the use of Coconut Shell Pyroligneous Acid (CSPA) in agriculture and to find out its efficacy in rehabilitating a depleted soil in Bohol, Philippines. Specifically, this study will find out the impacts of CSPA on the biological and chemical properties of depleted soil. Pyroligneous acid used in this study is a by-product of coconut shell charcoal making. The CSPA was used in combination with rain water. There were three concentrations used: 10%, 20% and 30%. Soil samples from depleted site in an upland farm were brought to the laboratory for analysis. Soil acidity changes in all treatments in an indirect proportion and organic matter has increased by 1 in soils receiving 10% and 30% CSPA and 0.5 in soils receiving 20% CSPA. From a baseline data of an “extremely acid soil”, soils receiving 10% and 20% CSPA lowers to “strongly acid” category while those receiving 30% changed to “very strongly acid”. Soils applied with 10% and 20% CSPA did not change the phosphorous value but it decreased by 3 in those applied with 30% CSPA. All treatments did not make any changes in potassium deficiency. For its biological study, it was found out that soil fauna in all treatments has a moderate Simpson’s index value. There were seven groups of arthropods found: order Acarina of class Arachnida and orders Coleoptera, Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera of class Insecta. It was found out that treatments that received high percentage of pyroligneous acid got a high faunal population. The study concluded that pyroligneous acid has demonstrated impacts to the biologicl and chemical aspects to a depleted soil. The higher the rate of CSPA, the higher the population of arthropods. Pyroligneous acid has changed the chemical property in terms of soil pH value, Organic Matter value and phosphorous value. Potassium remains deficient before and after treatment in all levels.

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  • ANAN POLTHANEE, ARUNEE PROMKHAMBUT, JAWAPA MANAONOK, RANGRONG TABOONMU ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 138-142
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of chemical and bio-compost fertilizer application on growth and yield of mungbean when grown as pre-or post-rice under rainfed conditions, as well as economic return of growing mungbean. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used, with four fertilizer application treatments; soil applied as basal NPK, folia applied chelate EDTA compound, folia applied bio-compost and control. The results showed that soil applied NPK produced the maximum seed yield when mungbean grown as pre-or post-rice crop. In economic return, soil applied as basal NPK provided the maximum net benefit (565US $/ha) when mungbean grown as pre-rice crop. While, folia applied bio-compost gave the highest net benefit (295US $/ha) mungbean grown as post-rice crop.

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  • DUANGRAT THONGPHAK, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, THAMMARED CHAUASAVATHI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 143-147
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this study was to compare the biodiversity of soil invertebrates in the various utilization of spent wash liquor in sugar cane plantations. Soil invertebrates were collected in the four different spent wash liquor applications: 1) control plot, 2) applied with spent wash liquor for 1 year plot, 3) applied with spent wash liquor for 2 years plot and 4) applied with spent wash liquor for 4 years plot. The soil invertebrate samples were collected by random sampling during November 2012 to October 2013. The results showed that a total of 7 orders comprising 42 species of 31 families were collected in this study. The density of soil invertebrates in the areas of spent wash liquor application was significantly higher than those in the control plot. The Shannon-Wiener’s species diversity index indicated that the diversity was the highest in the plantation applied with spent wash liquor for 2 year (2.26), followed by that of applied with spent wash liquor for 4 years (2.06), applied with spent wash liquor at 1 year (2.04) and lastly the control plot (1.57).

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  • KIRIYA SUNGTHONGWISES
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 148-152
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Vermicompost originates from the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms. Its microbial activity is 10 to 20 times higher than in the soil and contains a higher saturation of nutrients than organic materials. Moreover, vermicompost is also believed to contain hormones and enzymes which it acquires during the passage of the organic matter through the earthworm gut. The hormones and enzymes are believed to stimulate plant growth and discourage plant pathogens. The analysis of the ability of vermicompost through their interactions on seedling growth and nutrients content of Hevea brasiliensis will enable to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers while increasing crops yield and for sustaining crop production. In this study, the effect of using vermicompost on growth and nutrients content of rubber seedlings has been studied. Four treatments were supplied with ratios of 1) 100 g/plant of 15-15-15, 2) 50 g/plant of 15-15-15 combined with 500 g/plant of vermicompost, 3) 500 g/plant of vermicompost and 4) 100 g/plant of 15-15-15 combined with 500 g/plant of vermicompost. The results showed a significant rise in growth and nutrients content of rubber seedlings by increasing ratio of vermicompost combined with 50 g/plant of 15-15-15. Obviously, rubber seedlings were mostly appeared in the stem dry weight, N and K content in the leaves part and N, P and K content in the stem part after 6 months in vermicompost applying.

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  • NARETH NUT, VICHIAN PLERMKAMON
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 153-158
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Floodplain management and mapping is a new and applied method for the river engineering and is essential for prediction of flood hazards. The lower Phong Basin area regularly goes more or less under flooding every year in the monsoon season due to lack of flood protection and limited resources. Most of the flood protection works are carried out at the local level without preplanning and considering the problems at the river basin scale. Traditionally, individuals or communities have been trying to develop their own strategies for minimizing the effects of floods. However, due to limitation of resources and knowledge, many householders are unable to protect their properties or possessions from floods. A methodology was applied to integrate hydraulic simulation model, HEC-RAS and GIS analysis for delineation of flood extents and depths within a Nam Phong River in northeast of Thailand. It is necessary to simulate complicated hydraulic behaviour of the river in a more simple way for the purpose of managing and performing all river training works[F1]. In this research, the steady flow was used to simulate flood along 148 km end of Nam Phong River starting at upstream from Ubolratana Dam to Chi River in Northeast of Thailand. Floodplain mappings were derived using integrating of HEC-RAS and GIS analysis. Delineation of flood extents and depths within the floodplain were conducted in different return periods. Critical flooding area along the river was distinguished based on the grid layer of flood depths. The results indicated that hydraulic simulation by integrating with GIS analysis could be effective for various kinds of floodplain management and mapping and give as different scenarios for river training works[F2] and flood mitigation planning.

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  • RATGON SUEBKAM, VIDHAYA TRELO-GES, SUPASIT KONYAI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 159-164
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Baby corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most significant and lucrative agricultural products grown in Thailand. Thailand, the largest exporter of baby corn in the world, has an average export income of 33 million dollars each year. However, Thai farmers income levels were lower for baby corn cultivation whereas a result of an increase in production factors. The objective of this study is to assess the appropriate water usage and fertilizer application on clay loam soil, in order to create higher yields of baby corn production. The experiment involved split-plot in randomize complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of three main plots of variable irrigation supply 1) 40% allowable depletion content (ADC), 2) 60% ADC, and 3) 80% ADC. Each plot acted in combination with four sub plots: 1) control, 2) 94-31-31 kg/ha (N-P2O5-K2O), 3) 47-16-16, and 4) 47-47-47 kg/ha. The results found 40% ADC irrigation the most favorable to increase pod weight and water usage efficiency. The findings also proved this method to have the least amount of reduction in green, blue, and total water footprint amounts. Past fertilizer applications found that 94-31-31 kg/ha fertilizer enhanced pod weight and length, as well as corn height, and water usage in both amount and efficiency. The fertilizer 47-47-47 kg/ha resulted in decrease of green, blue, and total water footprint amount compared with other sub plots. A 40% ADC irrigation combination with 94-31-31 kg/ha yielded the highest pod weight and water usage efficiency compared with all other treatments. Moreover, the water footprint demonstrated the least amount of decrease in green, blue, and total water footprints compared with other treatments.

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  • KINGSHUK ROY, TOSHIHARU SHIMOWATARI, ZHANG WEI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 165-174
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Desertification is still a severe problem in the Inner Mongolia region of China, despite the country’s efforts to stop land degradation. The authors carried out periodic field surveys for over a decade in different desertification-prone arid lands of Northern China. Based on a series of experiments and analyses, this paper proposes locally-tailored technologies that can ensure greater participation, and lead to more effective, sustainable measures to combat desertification in the area. Specifically, the potential of both cotton and coal ash as water-holding materials was experimented with sandy soil. From the results, an amount of 0.5% (by weight) cotton and 3% (by weight) alkali-treated coal ash (named artificial zeolite) mixed with sandy soil could ensure water retention in the soil and so facilitate upland crops growing in arid environments. The results also showed that, if mixed individually with the soil, both of these materials demonstrated constant positive effect as water-holding materials. However, dual application (both the items mixed together with soil) did not show constant positive effect. In addition, to diversify the potential uses of coal ash, the effects of artificial zeolite as a particle film sprayed over plant-leaves were also tested. The results showed that cotton plants with a particle film that were grown in sandy soil tended to transpire less water than those plants without a particle film on their leaves. Finally, since the properties of applied forms of coal ash (i.e. the artificial zeolite) differ based on the processing methods (alkali treatment) used, proper selection of the type of artificial zeolite could further diversify its potential uses, for example as a salinity mitigator in arid soil.

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  • TATIANA KOMAROVA, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, ATCHARAPORN SOMPARN, NATSIM ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 175-180
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Large quantities of pesticides and herbicides are used in the Namphong River catchment, NE Thailand for protection of crops and agro industrial production. The aim of this study was to screen pesticides in waters of the Namphong River from in-situ river aquaculture, surface runoff and agro industrial discharges to identify if pesticide levels pose significant risk to the aquatic ecosystem. A passive sampling technique was used to estimate the level of pesticides in the river water. Pesticides were accumulated on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) strip passive samplers during 29 days deployment in January-February 2012, and then sent to Australia for analysis of pesticides at the University of Queensland and Queensland Health Laboratories. The PDMS passive samplers were deployed at 5 sites in the Namphong River from below the Ubonratana Dam, the tributary downstream of the paper mill and vegetable and paddy fields down to the Chi River above the junction of Namphong River. Atrazine, ametryn, chlorpyrifos and oxadiazon were found at all sites at elevated levels associated with vegetable and paddy field areas indicating their extensive application. Terbuthylazine, terbuphos and phosphate tri-n-butyl were found only in the paper mill discharge. Traces of galaxolide were found at all sites but only in significant amounts (30 times higher) just below the paper mill. Comparison of pesticides between the present and an earlier 2005 study of the paddy field ecosystem 50 km N from Khon Kaen show a shift from organochlorine use to low persistence pesticides, particularly chlorpyrifos. The results confirm that a range of pesticides are being used in the Namphong river catchment able to be detected downstream, though at low levels. These data provide a baseline, showing the need exists for more systematic and complex assessment of the catchment to develop a tool for pollution control in the catchment and to identify major sources of contamination and for ongoing environmental risk management.

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  • TAKASHI KUME, TADAO YAMAMOTO, KATSUYUKI SHIMIZU, ABDISALAM JALALDIN
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 181-187
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We assessed soil salinity at field scale and suggested appropriate water and salt management practices for an arid region. Specifically, we focused on non-uniform salinity distribution along a transect in a research field. We also examined factors affecting the distribution of salt, including irrigation, drainage and salt movement. The non-uniform salinity distribution across the field was probably formed by irrigation management and distance from main drainage channel, while the effect of soil physical properties and groundwater was limited. The main drainage channel functioned well during the past irrigation period when abundant Karez water was available for leaching irrigation, and this contributed to the present non-uniform salinity distribution. Currently, farmers use less irrigation water, which does not promote desalinization. Vertical movement of soluble salts near the soil surface was dominated by irrigation management. Border irrigation promotes desalinization but drip irrigation enhances salt accumulation, with salinity increasing after irrigation because of high evaporation rates in the hyperarid climate. Based on these results, we explained the following points to local farmers in non-technical language: 1) a drainage channel is important for desalinization but the current channel is no longer sufficient to discharge salt from the field; 2) drip irrigation is effective for deficit irrigation but it enhances salt accumulation; 3) border irrigation has a positive effect on salt leaching from surface layers but the leached salt returns to the surface after irrigation ceases; and 4) there are high salinity layers below 60 cm soil depth, distributed widely across the fields.

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  • MARIA DANESA S. RABIA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 188-193
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To identify feed alternative in the fattening of mud crab (Scylla serrata Forskal), three diets were tested using a modified cellular cages. Mixed sex crabs were fed with trash fish, golden apple snail and combination of trash fish and golden apple snail at 10% body weight. Growth, survival, moulting and picked meat yield and quality were evaluated. Specific growth rate and survival were highest in crabs fed with golden apple snail and combination. Moulting was significantly affected by diet types. There was no significant difference in the yield of picked meat and overall acceptability scores. Golden apple snail could be a potential dietary substitute for trash fish.

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