International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development
Online ISSN : 2433-3700
Print ISSN : 2185-159X
ISSN-L : 2185-159X
Volume 7 , Issue 2
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • JOSE T. TRAVERO
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The main objective of this study was to identify the soil types and geographical forms in the degraded uplands of Bohol. This was accomplished by gathering secondary data from concerned institutions and from previous research results. Bohol is geographically located between 123°40’ and 124°40’ East longitude and extends from 9°30’ to 10°15’ North latitude, in the central portion of Visayas. It is generally flat and plain with only few mountainous areas at the northeastern portion suitable for massive cultivation of agricultural products. Some of these mountainous areas, particularly those preserved from degradation, can serve as habitat for interesting flora and fauna as well as natural land forms that travelers look for, such as the landform for which Bohol has been noted, the Chocolate Hills. The existing general land use data of Bohol has 13 categories. The top three categories in terms of area are the agricultural land, timberland and infra utilities. Agricultural land constitutes about 66.54% of the province total land area while timberland is only 24.6%. Approximately 167,160 hectares or 40.6% of the total provincial land area have slope gradients of 0-8%, largely covering the central of northern areas which comprise the prime agricultural zone utilized or irrigated and rainfed palay and corn production. The areas with 8-18% slopes accounted for 29% which is mostly planted with coconut, corn and subsistence crops and open/idle and eroded land areas. The rolling to mountain areas with slopes of 18% and above cover about 123,930 hectares or 30% of Bohol land area. Areas with slopes of 18% and above have been disturbed and exploited particularly for subsistence farming. Soil types of the degraded uplands of Bohol are of different soil classification. The most extensive soil type is Ubay clay which occurs from the central (Carmen and Sierra Bullones) to the north and northeastern (San Miguel to Alicia) and northwestern areas of Bohol. Faraon clay predominates at the southern municipalities of Lila, Dimiao, Valencia and Garcia Hernandez.

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  • LYLY SOEUNG, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 6-11
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Mekong River is one of the world’s greatest river systems and sustains human life and ecosystems. The livelihoods of 60 million people who live along the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) rely on both the economic resource and the ecological health of the river. In this study, US EPA method was used for the acute toxicity with different water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Mekong River in Cambodia on Chironomus javanus and fish Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) to modify the effecting of DOC on copper toxicity. Both C. javanus and Nile tilapia were significantly less sensitive to copper in water high DOC (5.74 mg/L DOC), compared to water low DOC (1.12 mg/L DOC) exposures. The effect of DOC, as humic acid source on the acute toxicity of copper (Cu) to C. javanus and Nile tilapia also was investigated. The mortalities for both species increase with increasing copper concentration, but LC50 value decreased as more toxic on Nile tilapia and C. javanus. This gave an order of toxicity of copper in water with low DOC > water with high DOC at the end point of LC50. DOC might provide protection against Cu toxicity in the freshwater in term of completive between copper form and DOC. The result of the LC50 with 95% confidence limit obtained at 48 hr in tap water on Moina macrocopa, C. javanus, Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Nile tilapia were 12 μg/L, 16399 μg/L, 118 μg/L and 1383 μg/L, respectively. This gave an order of toxicity of copper in tap water with M. macrocopa> Grass Carp > Nile tilapia> C. javanus. Also, it could be noted that Moina was the most sensitive followed by Grass Carp, Nile tilapia, and C. javanus to copper. Present study indicated that water chemistry parameters can influence on copper toxicity to tropical freshwaters biota. Exposures in this series of laboratory experiment will provides a worst-case scenario and useful for determine the risk assessment of copper on Mekong tropical freshwater animals.

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  • NAKSAYFONG KHOUNNAVONGSA, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 12-17
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The ecotoxicology of copper on freshwater organisms were studied using field-collected water from two local sites along Lower Mekong Basin in Lao PDR, which focused on different water hardness 20±2.83 and 108±0.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3 (water in rainy season), 105±3.35 and 140±4.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3 (water in dry season) and distilled water was reconstituted by adding reagent-grade chemicals which reconstituted water hardness 18±3.58 and 86±4.56 mg L-1 as CaCO3. In this study, the US EPA method was used for the acute toxicity test to juvenile Cyprinidae (Labeo rohita) and Moina macrocopa at different water hardness. Mortalities were at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr for L. rohita and 48 hr for M. macrocopa. At water hardness of 20±2.83 mg L-1 as CaCO3, the percentage mortality of L. rohita was 100% at 96 hr by Cu 0.13 mg L-1. The mortality was 100% at 96 hr of water hardness 108±0.00 mg/L as CaCO3 at Cu 0.37 mg L-1. There was a 3-fold increase in water hardness (from 20±2.83 and 108±0.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3) and Cu was highly significantly toxic to L. rohita. The percentage mortality of L. rohita was 100% at 96 hr by Cu 0.37 mg L-1, on 105±3.35 and 140±4.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3, and both were highly significant difference (P < 0.001). A 8-fold increase in water hardness (from 105±3.35 and 140±4.00 mg/L as CaCO3) and Cu was significantlytoxic to L. rohita. At 20±2.83 mg L-1 as CaCO3 hardness, the percentage mortality of M. macrocopa of 100% was very highly significant at 48 hr by Cu 0.07 mg L-1, while percentage mortality was 100% at 48 hr of water hardness 108±0.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3 at Cu 0.13 mg L-1, the difference was highly significant as well. A 3-fold increase in water hardness (from 20±2.83 to 108±0.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3) had significant toxic effect of Cu to M. macrocopa with overlapping 95% confidence intervals of LC50 values. The percentage mortality of M. macrocopa of 100% at 48 hr by Cu 0.13 mg L-1, on water hardness of 105±3.35 and 140±4.00 m L-1 as CaCO3, were both highly significant. A 2-fold increase in water hardness (from 105±3.35 and 140±4.00 mg L-1 as CaCO3) did not significantly (P > 0.05) have toxic effect of Cu to M. macrocopa. The effects of Cu on organisms depend on water hardness, i.e., increasing water hardness reduce the toxic effect of Cu on aquatic organism.

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  • NARUEMOL KAEWJAMPA, NIPAPORN CHAISRI, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 18-23
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of water use consists of the direct and indirect water use throughout the life cycle of crop produce and it varies on different climate and agricultural production system. This study aims to assess the water use of cassava and sugarcane cultivation in northeastern, Thailand using WF concept which is a tool for sustainable water analysis and management. The results of this study show the average the WF of cassava (345 m3/ton) is more than that sugarcane (157 m3/ton). At the provincial level, the WF of cassava is the most highest in Amnat Charoen (378 m3/ton; green WF 44 m3/ton, blue WF 233 m3/ton and grey WF 101 m3/ton), while Buri Ram has the lowest WF (313 m3/ton; green WF 38 m3/ton, blue WF 181 m3/ton and grey WF 94 m3/ton). For sugarcane, Amnat Charoen show the highest of WF of 167 m3/ton, which consists of green WF 20 m3/ton, blue WF 84 m3/ton and grey WF 63 m3/ton. Meanwhile, the lowest WF was 133 m3/ton in Bueng Kan (green WF 16 m3/ton, blue WF 64 m3/ton and grey WF 54 m3/ton). As a result, the different location, crop, agricultural production systems and yields have an effect on WF. Therefore, not only developing the efficiency water system to water resources sustainable but also increased crop productivity and soil fertility are certainly important for decrease the amount of water used in this region.

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  • SOCHEAT SIENG, STEPHEN W. WALKDEN-BROWN, JAMES KERR
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 24-31
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Vaccine efficacy may be influenced by pre-use storage condition. This study assesses vaccine cold storage management and vaccine handling practices at 30 veterinary drug stores spread across the provinces of Pursat (n=10), Kampong Cham (n=9) and Phnom Penh (n=11) in Cambodia. Electronic data loggers were used to record the temperature in each cold storage facility every thirty minutes for a period of thirty days. The findings indicated that vaccines were exposed to freeze temperature for 24-100 hrs (3%-14%) and more than 100 hrs (15%-87%) of time recordings in 8 and 9 facilities respectively. Vaccines were exposed to heat for 254-327 hrs (35%-45%) of time recordings in 3 facilities and between 468-7200 hrs (65%-100%) in 4 facilities. Most of the refrigerators also contained food and/or drinks, leading to the frequent door opening. Vaccines were often stored in the bottom drawers and door shelves, which were the warmest locations within refrigerators in the study. The vast majority of the study refrigerators (93.3%) were not equipped with a maximum-minimum thermometer. Daily refrigerator temperature recording was not practiced in any of veterinary drugstores. This study also highlighted the considerable temperature fluctuations to which vaccines were exposed to a number of refrigerators. The frequent power failures which occur in Cambodia contribute to these temperature fluctuations. This study consequently also investigated the speed and duration of temperature rise in a cold storage facility during a typical power failure in Phnom Penh. The results suggested that corrective training for vaccine wholesalers/retailers and relevant government staff may be a useful first step in attempting to improve vaccine storage conditions, hence, improved potency. Maintenance of vaccine potency is likely to improve the success of vaccination programs in Cambodia. This critical but neglected issue requires improved practices and ongoing monitoring. The results also highlight the need for improvement and solutions to avoid ongoing future exposure of vaccines to freezing, too cold and too hot temperatures, particularly in hot tropical countries like Cambodia.

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  • TARA PIN, KONGKEA PHAN, VANNARO PIN, OEUN HORN, JOHN M. SCHILLER
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 32-37
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A study was made of the importance of crop rotations on the growth and yield of maize in upland cropping systems of Cambodia. Maize (MZ) was grown continuously and in two-year rotations with cassava (CS), soybean (SB), mung bean (MB) and peanut (PN). Six different rotations T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were designed and studied in the upland cropping systems in the provinces of Prey Veng and Svay Rieng in southeastern Cambodia. Mono-cropping with maize (T0) was used as the control treatment in the study. The study was undertaken in the period 2013 to 2015. The field experiments revealed an increase in crop yields in the order of T1 > T2 > T3 > T5 > T6. There was no significant difference in crop yield between T4 and the control (T0) treatment. The analysis of soils data revealed that there were no significant differences in soil nitrogen and phosphate levels pre-treatment and post–treatment in each of the rotations (paired samples t test, p > 0.05). However, post-treatment potassium levels were significantly lower than the pre-treatment levels in all cropping rotations (p < 0.05) except T0. The results of the study suggest that the maize-legume rotation is the most promising crop rotation for yield improvement in the upland cropping systems in southeast Cambodia.

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  • SOPHAL VAR, EDNA A. AGUILAR, POMPE C. STACRUZ
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 38-43
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rice is the major source of carbohydrate, nutrient and income of poor farmers especially in rural areas in Cambodia, and Ratanakiri Province is one among them. Rice self-sufficiency was threatening while the population dramatically increasing and the rice production trend showed the declining. Given primary result showed that a few families were victims of rice self-insufficiency, notably, who possessed small farm, and large members’ family. But none of those families experienced hunger as they superior to buy food aid from the market while the other mechanisms were also held. The linear multiple regression models showed that rice sufficiency of upland rice producer families were strongly depend on rice yield obtained. Traditional practices carried by many farmers resulting poor rice productivity. Thus, to meet and sustain rice self-sufficiency several management practices are needed to improve including increasing seeding rate, wisely select variety and planting method, fertilization while capacity building are more apparent for the rapidly adopt technological and economic environment and increasing income.

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  • ABDUL MALIK DAWLATZAI, MACHITO MIHARA
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 44-51
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
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    Agriculture is the backbone of economy of Paktya Province in Afghanistan with more than 80% people engages in agriculture for their livelihoods. In spite of such a large workforce involves in this activity, the outcomes are not very satisfied. A survey was conducted to discuss current conditions of agricultural sectors and constraints of agriculture in Paktya province. Survey was done in accordance with a questionnaire sheet on current agricultural condition and constraints. As per the survey it was found that majority of farmers use traditional farming methods and have very poor technical knowledge in agriculture. The low productivity and fertility of soils as well as the lack of irrigation water were identified as major factors causing low agricultural production at the research area. In addition, 32.4% of responded farmers answered soil erosion happens very severely and 50.0% answered soil erosion happens severely. It means that more than 80% of farmers require the proper conservation strategies for holding soil fertility. It was considered that soil degradation caused by erosion phenomena with high intensity rainfall causes low holding capacities of nutrients and water of soils. The development of proper conservation strategies as well as farmers education on proper soil management is indispensable to achieve sustainable agriculture in Paktya Province, Afghanistan.

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  • ANUCHA WITTAYAKORN-PURIPUNPINYOO, NAIYANA JULLAPHUN
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 52-56
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Agricultural cooperative has been a crucial community business for Thais in the rural area of Thailand over 100 years. It is important to analyses of efficiency and factors affecting efficiency. The research objectives were to (1) analyze the efficiency of agricultural cooperatives in the lower-northern area of Thailand utilized by the Data Environment Analysis Model (DEA Model) and (2) study the factors affecting the efficiency and operational development of agricultural cooperatives in the lower-northern area of Thailand. The research population comprised of agricultural cooperatives which identified as the general agricultural cooperatives. The study area covered nine provinces comprise of 196 cooperatives. The secondary data were collected from Financial Information Data Base of the Department of Cooperative Auditing, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. The data were analyzed by using Data Environment Analysis Model and Ordered Probit Model. The major findings were (1) the entire efficiency index of agricultural cooperatives in the lower-northern area of Thailand expressed at the medium score index of efficiency. The return to scale of agricultural cooperative operations in the lower-northern area of Thailand lighted on the Constant Return to Scale (CRS), Diminishing Return to Scale (DRS), as well as Increasing Return to Scale (IRS) of 15.31, 49.49, and 35.20, respectively. (2) Factors affecting the efficiency and operational development of agricultural cooperatives in the lower-northern area of Thailand expressed by value of total assets and value of credit business. According to the research results, it was suggested that the cooperative operations should be reached the maximum point of efficiency and it is necessary for cooperatives to make the operation cost management, the resources of co-operative operations which comprised of the entire co-operative assets. Moreover; the cooperatives should pay the crucial role on credit business management.

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  • DUANGRAT THONGPHAK, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 57-62
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Water quality has significant effects toward the diversity and distribution of aquatic insect. The application of fertilizer and pesticides may degrade water quality and affect to diversity of aquatic insects. Aquatic insect in rice fields was surveyed to compare the diversity between organic and conventional rice fields in Khon Kaen province during June to October 2015. Three replication of sampling by aquatic sweep net were conducted at sampling sites. The result showed that aquatic insect was represented by 17 species belongs to 16 families of 6 orders. The order Hemiptera was the highest in abundance groups in the fields (5 families) followed by Odonata (3 families), Diptera (3 families), Coleoptera (2 families), Ephemeroptera was the lowest in abundance (2 families) and Collembola (unidentified family). The richness of aquatic insects in the organic rice field was found slightly higher than the conventional one. The species diversity index (H') was 0.427 in organic site and conventional site was 0.401. This study is considered to have no significant in diversity or abundance of aquatic insects between organic and conventional rice field. Order Hemiptera was found abundant and dominant among other orders.

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  • VUA XIONGSIYEE, CHANAKAN PROM-U-THAI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 63-69
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Luang prabang province is recognized as a major area of the diversity of Oryza sativa L. in Lao PDR. Grain morphological characteristics can be used as the primary information of genetic variation among different rice varieties in the local germplasm which can be a source of value adding traits for rice breeding programs. The purpose of this study was evaluated variation in grain morphological characteristics of upland rice varieties from Luang prabang province, Lao PDR. The samples were collected from three districts, Ponxay (PX), Pak Ou (PO) and Xieng Ngeun (XNg), two villages each. Grain morphological characteristics were measured including grain size (length, width, and thickness), weight, shape, and endosperm type and pericarp color. The total of 60 samples were collected which was separated into 26, 10, and 24 samples from PX, PO, and XNg, respectively and among these samples 42 and 18 samples were glutinous and non-glutinous endosperm types, respectively. The 51 samples were found in non-pigmented, 4 in red and 5 in black pericarp colors. There was variation of grain size among 60 samples. Grain length, width and thickness were ranging from 8.61-11.63, 2.67-4.27 and 1.97-2.47 mm, respectively. Grain shape was determined by using the ratio of grain length/width and most samples (58 varieties) were distinguished as large grain type and the rest in slender type. One hundred grain weight was also varied from 2.05-4.04 g among brown rice of 60 samples. The grain weight was varied with grain length, width and thickness in multiple regression of y = 0.39 (grain length) + 0.53 (grain width) + 1.42 (grain thickness) – 5.52 at R2 = 0.89 (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated the variation in grain morphological characteristics of upland rice varieties from Luang prabang province, Lao PDR. The variation of nutritional quality was subjected to evaluate in the further investigation which can be used as the basic information for the selection traits of rice varieties in the further breeding program.

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  • JESRELLJANE AARON-AMPER, SAMUEL J. GULAYAN, JOSUEH M. GULAYAN
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 70-74
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Since 2012, the Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Development (DOST-PCAARD) has been funding a coral reef restoration project, conducted by different universities in the Philippines. As part of this project, coral nursery units (CNUs) have been deployed to supply high quality coral nubbins aimed at reducing the dependence of coral fragments from wild coral populations. Changes in the reef fish assemblage were assessed after four months to find out whether fishes are attracted to and produced at the CNUs. Six CNUs were deployed at 30 m apart from each other. Fishes were counted and identified using the fixed-point technique. Fish density and species richness were compared before and after CNU installation. Both production and attraction of reef fishes were evident, notably, by the abundance of Apogonidae. The high concentrations of secondary consumers are the main evidence for the attraction of the CNUs. Our results indicate that CNUs can be used as an effective management and restoration tool for improving the local fishing yields.

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  • RUNGKAN KLAHAN, PANUPHONG YOTHA, MONTREE PUNYATHONG
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 75-80
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The utilization of corncob as feedstuff was investigated to examine the diet contained corncob in the fingerling Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The initial weight of Nile tilapia fingerlings ranged from 14.66 – 16.66 g/fish. The experiment was divided into four groups by the levels of corncob of 0%, 2%, 8% and 15% and conducted for 120 days. At the end of experiment, the results showed that the growth performance and feed utilization each groups were not significant different (P > 0.05). In addition the carcass composition and composition of edible flesh have no difference (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the feed cost was decrease by variation with the level of corn cob in diet were 0.14, 0.56 and 1.05%, respectively. Moreover, the water qualities of fish fed with feed contained corncob at different levels were in range of water quality standard. The study indicated that the diets containing corncob at 15% of fiber no negative effect on growth, feed utilization, carcass composition and edible flesh quality. Moreover, it’s affected on cost - effectiveness.

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  • SHINOBU YAMADA, MACHITO MIHARA, KUMIKO KAWABE
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 81-86
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
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    The main objective of this study is to compare the characteristics between the local farmers who conduct traditional upland farming without chemical fertilizer and the local farmers who depend on chemical fertilizer. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. 1) According to the results of Multiple Correspondence Analysis, it was clear that the preference divisions of the local farmers who depend on chemical fertilizer were “Gender”, “Age”, “Family number”, “Duration of residence”, “Irrigation facility” and “Multiple cropping” as important characteristics for the classification. 2) The results from the Biological and Chemical Technology Method indicated that chemical fertilizers were applied intensively in farmlands with low soil fertility. Therefore, it was considered that the contribution of the current capital, such as chemical fertilizer, was not effectively conducted. 3) In the research site, the estimated value of technical efficiency showed the existence of technical inefficiency in upland farming systems.

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  • ISHWAR PUN, EIJI YAMAJI, SOPHY CHES
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 87-92
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Transplanting a single young rice seedling is one of the common methods in SRI practices. However, farmers in some lowland areas hesitate to apply this method due to the threats such as seasonal floods, birds and pests. Most of the farmers are more comfortable with transplantation of two or more seedlings per hill. Thus, an experiment was conducted in the lysimeter at the rooftop of the University of Tokyo in 2015 to compare the rice plant development with different transplanting density. As an experimental design, two sets of single seedling transplantation were applied with alternative wetting and drying irrigation as replications; the same irrigation condition was applied to other transplantations with two, three and four seedlings per hill. The plant height, number of leaves and tillers, dry biomass, and grain yields were selected as the main factors for the comparison of rice plant development. As a result, no difference was observed for the development of height across all transplantation density treatments during the vegetative phase. However, during the reproductive and ripening phases, single-seedling transplantation reached greater height. For the development in number of tillers and leaves, three and four seedlings produced more tillers and leaves than one and two seedlings. We found that the grain yield is significantly higher in three and four seedlings rather than one seedling.

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  • NINA SHIMOGUCHI, LOIDA MOJICA
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 93-98
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    With the increasing awareness of consumers for an alternative lifestyle and the enactment of the Organic Agricultural Act of 2010, more and more farmers are expected to shift to organic farming (OF) in the Philippines. However, shifting to OF and maintaning an organic farm are not easy tasks due to various issues such as lack of knowledge on suitable production technologies, unstable supply, lack of markets, intensive labor inputs and difficulty in controlling weeds, pests and diseases to name a few. Despite these issues, some organic farms were able to sustain operations. This study aims to determine different farm business strategies that enabled C Farm (CF) to remain in business and continue to grow given the changing business environment. This paper does not limit its scope to the strategies adopted by CF to cope with climate changes, but this also focuses on the changes in business strategies despite the challenges in the economic, technological and socio-cultural environment. The case study approach is done through in-depth interviews with company owners, multiple site visits and observations. Furthermore, evaluation of the opportunities and threats in a business environment was also done to identify suited strategies implemented by CF. This study is a significant tool for potential OF investors in determining best practices in the OF business. Farm visits and key informant interviews revealed that CF was able to adopt innovative production, marketing, financing and community relationship strategies, which are the key factors in business survival and growth. Positioned as an agritourism farm, it was able to deal with the presssures of the external environment by integrating farm operations; crafting strategies to increase and sustain production through ecological means; adopting keen market sensing strategies; increasing financing through joint ventures and strengthening community relations by involving them in the various financing and operations activities.

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  • PHRUEKSA LAWONGSA, PIMUPSORN PANOMKHUM
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 99-105
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The use of chemical pesticide always leaves chemical residues on soil and may affect the population, function and diversity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of thiamethoxam, pesticide in the group of neonicotinoid to control insect pest, on diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) communities in cassava production systems. Bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of cassava grown in the field of 5 treatments, including cassava production system without thiamethoxam and fertilizer application, cassava production system with thiamethoxam application, cassava production system with thiamethoxam and organic fertilizer application, cassava production system with thiamethoxam and chemical fertilizer application, and cassava production system with thiamethoxam, organic and chemical fertilizer application, and then screened for plant growth promoting traits. The genotypic diversity of isolates was determined on a basis of amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The findings of this study indicated that the majority of bacteria were found to belong to the genera of Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, and Brevibacillus. Interestingly, the application of thiamethoxam in cassava production system has no effect on PGPR diversity.

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  • BOUAVONH BIACHAMPAH, PANOMSAK PROMBUROM, BUDSARA LIMNIRANKUL
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 106-112
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is widely recognized that land use changes are affecting provision of ecosystem services as well as people’s livelihoods, especially in rural areas where people are highly dependent on local ecosystem services. This study developed an integrated methodological framework by combining a diversity of corresponding frameworks and concept, such as Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR), Ecosystem Services (ES), Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) and Agro-Ecosystem Analysis (AEA). This integrated framework was used together with a combination of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method and spatiotemporal analysis. The objectives of this study aimed at detecting land use change and identifying its drivers; and assessing the impact on provisioning ES and livelihood security of rural highland communities in Saysathan district, Sayaboury province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Land use change analysis highlighted a large decrease in forest areas during the past decade. The reduction of forest cover was associated with significant decline of provisioning ES, and the decline in provisioning ecosystem services also influenced the state of livelihood security of the local communities, especially natural capital. By taking the trajectory of forest cover change and the importance of provisioning ES into account, it is essential for stakeholders to integrate ES indicators into land use management planning as well as socio-economic development to maximize benefits from natural resources to the communities.

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  • PHON SOVATNA, EIJI INOUE, MUNESHI MITSUOKA, ZHEN LI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 113-119
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The increase of agricultural mechanization, especially hand tractors has been remarkably emerged in the last decade. It is known as well that agricultural mechanization not only facilitated timely completion of operations but also increased production, labor savings, energy efficiency, productivity, and profitability. With high degree of hand tractor use, providing a safe and comfortable working environment to operators became an important consideration, specifically vibration that is a main cause of early fatigues. In this study focus on measuring translational acceleration and rotational angular velocity at various locations of hand-tractor under stationary and driving modes. Root-mean-squares (RMS) and power-spectrum-density (PSD) were used to investigate vibration magnitude and dominant frequencies, and effective measurements were finally suggested. Results showed that under stationary mode largest vibration acceleration appeared at handgrip in vertical axis of about 8.5m/s2 followed by engine top, gearbox and chassis, respectively. In driving mode, the main vibration magnitude occurs in vertical axis at about 11.8 m/s2. Within 50Hz frequencies, predominant acceleration occurred in longitudinal axis at about 10Hz frequencies at first peak and about 18Hz frequencies at next peak at engine top. Whereas, at handgrip predominant acceleration appeared hugely in vertical axis at about 10Hz frequencies, and at the same frequency was found in pitch axis of rotational angular velocity under stationary mode. However, it appears clearly at about 9Hz frequencies in vertical axis in driving mode. Both conditions, vibration exposures are much higher than that in health risk limitation standard that operators should be prevented effectively; otherwise, to suffer from early fatigue.

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  • SOALY CHAN
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 120-127
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Government of Cambodia recognizes the importance of biodiversity conservation. Following broad consultation and collaboration with stakeholders, it has created national policies and legislation for environmental and natural resources management over the next decade and also to compliance with country’s obligations under relevant international treaties and conventions. This paper sets out the existing national environmental and natural resources management’s policies and legislation, focusing on the protected areas system management in Cambodia. The specific objective is to analyze policy gaps in biodiversity and natural resources conservation; and assess its’ effectiveness implementation. There are three phases in the assessment process: 1) gathering, listing and reviewing existing policies and legislations to highlight the significant contents in competences to natural resources conservation and management; 2) analyzing and identifying content gaps and opportunities to implement “Protected Areas Law” and relevant legislation in contribute to biodiversity management; 3) reviewing and examining national legislations, the provisions reflect on Cambodia’s obligations under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. Among 9 specific laws and some relevant policies and strategic plan there is approximate one third are found they have specific provisions related to biodiversity management and relevant to the protected areas system management. The analysis of “Protected Areas Law” shown a significant gap for unmanageable of protected areas that are not designated by Royal Decree on 1 November 1993 and neither financial mechanism nor guideline for zoning identification and management. The analysis showed that lack of specific policy on biodiversity management lead to challenges for sustainable use of natural resources with no return monitory benefits from ecosystem services. In conclusion, this paper will present opinions and recommendations to address policy gaps and enhance the implementation of existing laws.

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  • TARA PIN, KONGKEA PHAN, VANNARO PIN, OEUN HORN, JOHN M. SCHILLER
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 128-133
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Successive monocropping with cassava in upland areas of Cambodia has led to a progressive decline in soil fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the change of soil properties and examine the growth and yield of peanut in intercropping cultivation in the upland cropping systems of Cambodia. Seven intercropping treatments were studied: T1 (cassava + mungbean + fertilizer rotation with fallowing); T2 (cassava + peanut + fertilizer rotation with fallowing); T3 (cassava + fertilizer rotation with fallowing); T4 (cassava + no fertilizer); T5 (mungbean + fertilizer rotation with cassava + mungbean + no fertilizer); T6 (peanut + fertilizer rotation with cassava + peanut + no fertilizer) and T7 (stylo + fertilizer rotation with cassava + no fertilizer) were designed and conducted in the fields of farmers in Prey Veng and Svay Rieng provinces. Field data indicated that peanut yield increased in the order of: T2 > T7 > T1 > T6 > T5 > T3 > T4. Analysis revealed there were significant differences in peanut yield among all seven treatments, with the yield of T4 being significantly lower than that of T2 and T7. The mean of the peanut yields were greater than 2.1t h-1 for all treatments. The total N, K and phosphate of the pre-treatment analysis did not significantly differ from those of the post-treatment analysis. This study suggests that intercropping cultivation could provide a sustainable harvestable yield of peanut in the upland cropping system in Cambodia.

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  • DIANE CARMELIZA N. CUARESMA, BEN PATRICK U. SOLIGUIN, ROWENA A. JAPITA ...
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 134-140
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The whole stretch of Calumpang River in Batangas province, Philippines is being considered for ecotourism development by the Batangas City government. Water quality of this river, however, falls under the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ (DENR’s) classification as Class D – suitable only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Restoration to Class B is needed for the river to qualify for Recreational Water Use. This resource management concern needs to be addressed by the involved local government units (LGUs). Using systems analysis and modeling, a study on pollution loading of Calumpang River is conducted to generate information that will aid policymakers in crafting management options for the restoration. Factors, relationships, and processes involving people, land uses, and management practices that led to its current polluted state are identified and analyzed using the conceptual framework of the river system. Pollution contributions are identified and quantified. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are used in determining who should be responsible and accountable for the restoration and management of this water resource. Results showed that agricultural activities are the major contributor to the degradation of water quality in Calumpang River. Swine production, in particular, loads as much as 16,990 kg of solid waste daily. Using the physico-chemical and socio-economic characteristics and their pollution loading contribution as a basis in determining the degree of accountability, results showed that Batangas and Lipa cities have the highest level of accountability with an AHP value of 0.24, followed by Rosario (0.15), Ibaan (0.14), and San Jose (0.10). Establishment of a governing body as a management option can be recommended using the results of the study as a basis for determining the financial contribution of the accountable municipalities and the number of their representatives in the governing body.

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  • JESRELLJANE AARON-AMPER, SAMUEL J. GULAYAN
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 141-146
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being used increasingly to manage and protect marine resources. Most studies of MPAs have only focused on either benthic cover or fish assemblage. In this study, the influence of MPA protection on both parameters in two areas at Bohol (Badiang, Anda and Baybayon, Mabini) was investigated. At each MPA, three 50-m transect lines at 10 m interval were permanently established inside and outside at 5-8 m depth. The systematic point intercept method was used in determining the benthic cover and fish visual census method for fish assemblage. In Badiang, the protected area had significantly higher live hard coral cover than the general use area. Dead coral with algae covered the general use area in both Badiang and Baybayon. Fish species richness were significantly different in Baybayon with moderate condition in protected area and poor condition in the general use area. Fish density inside the protected area and general use area were not significantly different but were in moderate condition. The high levels of hard coral cover and fish species richness in the protected areas may be a result of their protection status.

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  • HIROMU OKAZAWA, YASUSHI TAKEUCHI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 147-153
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    An estimate of potential evapotranspiration (PET) is typically required for rainfall runoff modeling, and such as estimate of PET is often determined from use of the Penman-Monteith (PM) method using air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and sunshine hours data. This method is recommended by the FAO and used widely across the world. The estimated PET is known to vary depending on the combination of meteorological data used in the PM equation. For example, PET can be estimated by using wind speed and air temperature data only, or by using all five meteorological data. There have been no cases that were examined regarding how combinations of the five data influence estimated PET for the Asian Monsoon region. Air temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, sunshine hours and humidity were measured and recorded at ten-minute intervals for three years at a weather station in the Minami-Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The daily PET was estimated for the 13 combinations of the five data. It was found that PET is overestimated when the solar radiation is not included in the combination. The above results show that data on the solar radiation are indispensable for PET estimation that uses the PM equation in the Asian Monsoon region.

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  • KUANG TING KUO, AYAKO SEKIYAMA, MACHITO MIHARA
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 154-161
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem which causes degradation of soil and water environment. Thus, soil conservation is necessary for the areas where accelerated erosion occurs. At early stages of soil conservation, certain strategies should be implemented based on predicted soil erosion rate of the area. Soil erosion rate has been calculated using erosion models, such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), etc. However, the most common model is either Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) or Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), as they are easy in handling by users. Attention has been paid to Cropping Management, factor C of USLE or RUSLE, since it is challenging to determine. The factor depends on the type of crop and the growing stage, however growing conditions would change locally and harvesting time are unpredictable. Also, vegetation could be changed unpredictably due to weather or farming conditions. Approaches based on remote sensing technology which has less temporal and spatial restrictions on detection of vegetation were applied to determine C factor using vegetation indices. However, it is not always successful in field application. Therefore, the objective of the study is to improve determination of C factor using vegetation indices. For clarification, experiments for identifying the relationship between C factor and vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were carried out under several types of soil. Furthermore, the accuracy of determination of C factor using vegetation indices was discussed through an erosion model experiment. The results showed SAVI is more strongly correlated with C factor than NDVI. Estimation of C factor based on NDVI and SAVI have 30% and 36% of relative error in field application. Therefore, it was concluded that vegetation indices have high potential to determine C factor of USLE or RUSLE. Also, estimation of field C factor based on SAVI is more recommendable for determination of C factor in the field where there are several types of soil.

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  • NGO THI THANH TRUC, NGUYEN THI THU TRANG
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 162-168
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Reduce, reuse and recycle (3Rs) is one of the elements contributing to the success of launching the integrated solid waste management recommended by the United Nations Environment Program. A survey of 360 urban and suburban household respondents was conducted in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam to understand how domestic solid waste managed at household level, to experience respondents’ knowledge, awareness and their acceptance participating 3Rs program if it is introduced in the Mekong Delta. Results show that 78% respondents sold recyclable waste and listed activities meaning reducing, reusing and recycling solid domestic waste. More than 70% respondents supported this program when it is launched. The results of the logit model reveal the significant difference in factors affecting urban and suburban respondents’ acceptance this program. Age, gender and educational attainment of respondents, household income, respondents’ knowledge on reduce, reuse and recycle their solid domestic waste and community participation are factors affecting household acceptance involving in 3Rs. They also propose how to organize successful 3Rs program, namely the collaboration between household and local community in organizing this program, upgrading households’ awareness on environmental protection and the support in propaganda of local authorities and social media.

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  • AJCHARAWADEE KRUAPUKEE, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, NARUMOL KAEWJAMPA
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 169-173
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems. This problem generates low soil productivity and soil ecosystem. Earthworms are one of the most important soil organisms in soil ecosystem (maintaining soil structure and the fertility of soil). Soil salinity has become one of the major determinants of crop productivity in Northeast Thailand. The aim of present study was size and composition of earthworm communities on related soil properties and rice growth under different soil salinity; 2 levels 1) low soil salinity (EC 2-4 dS/m) and 2) moderate soil salinity (EC 4-8 dS/m). Soil and earthworm cast were collected to analyze for soil chemical properties. The results showed that there was significant difference between density and size of different species of earthworms in different level of soil salinity. In rice ecosystem in moderate salt-affected area the earthworm species Drawida beddardi was the only one found at 95 days after rice sowing, while in low salt affected area the earthworm species, Glyphidrilus chiensis and Drawida beddardi were the most common species found at 45 days after rice sowing. Earthworms improve soil properties and rice growth rate. Oryza sativa L. (Khao Dawk Mali 105 and RD6) growth decreased with increasing levels of soil salinity.

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  • KIICHIRO HAYASHI, AKIRA SUGIYAMA, MAKOTO OOBA
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 174-181
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Nature provides many benefits to human society, known as ecosystem services (ESs), and also has negative impacts on human society, known as ecosystem disservices (EDSs). Mosquitoes contribute to EDSs, such as the risk of disease, the disamenity of mosquito bites. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors of EDSs caused by mosquitoes, employing a case study in Nagoya City, Japan. Mosquitoes were collected by CDC (Center for Disease Control) CO2-baited traps. Also a questionnaire survey of Nagoya citizens was conducted to assess the disamenity level of mosquitoes. Many variables, such as land use type, were developed by geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses were conducted to identify the main factors of mosquito abundance and disamenity. Important factors were identified for both mosquito abundance and its disamenity. Further studies, including multi-point trap surveys and more detailed spatial studies, are required to elucidate these aspects.

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  • MAKOTO OOBA, HIDEYUKI ITO, KIICHIRO HAYASHI
    2016 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 182-189
    Published: 2016
    Released: November 16, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, the value of urban green spaces and parks in Japan has begun to be reevaluated. In particular, attention is being paid to easily accessible and routinely available urban green spaces and parks, where many people benefit from cultural services such as recreation and relaxation. However, these spaces are facing the threat of destruction by urban development. Thus, to assess the recreation function of the small- to medium-scale urban parks and green spaces routinely used by many people, this study aimed to evaluate their economic value using the travel cost method (TCM). To expand the results from the TCM, suggestions were made with regard to prioritizing ecosystems in urban areas for conservation. The potential supply of ecosystem services was estimated using five categorized proxy variables and weighted by the TCM results. This assessment can be applied to any city whose social and natural statistics are not well-managed.

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