Natural disasters have caused many impacts on the modern society mainly in disaster-prone regions. Although modernization has improved disaster prevention measures based on science and technology, it has also changed the human lifestyle from the traditional to the modern way, which may increase the disaster risks. This paper studies the relationship between modernization and its adverse effect on a disaster-prone region from the sociological and geo-historical approach to analyze the root cause of disaster. It takes up the case of rural area, Ishinomaki and Kesennuma cities, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan - where are historically vulnerable to geophysical disasters such as earthquake and tsunami. Both cities were significantly damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 despite the modernized society. The study is based on the qualitative method which mainly constitutes of literature analysis. The main conclusion is that the Japanese modernization started since 1868 entailed increased risks for the society. Modernization has certainly produced effective disaster prevention measures based on advanced science and technology and centralized measures led by the government and economy-oriented development. However, the modernization which brought from the West where natural disasters are not as critical as Japan was not always prioritized over the political and economic competition. Hence, it caused the disaster-prone area more vulnerable when a disaster topples the capacity of such modern system by increasing the exposure to hazards under diplomatic and security issues and economy-oriented development.
Eight strains of the entomopathogenic of the fungus Nomuraea rileyi were screened for control of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura. The results showed that N. rileyi was pathogenic to S. litura, and that pathogenity significantly varied among the strains. The mortalities ranged from 2.5 to 92.5% at 7 d after inoculation. The strains tested were classified into three groups according to mortality percentage. High pathogenicity level was defined as a mortality greater than 75.79%, moderate pathogenicity was a mortality between 75.79 to 49.50%, and low pathogenicity level less than 49.50% mortality. The high pathogenicity level contained two strains, BCC 14653 and BCC 14671, which were identified as highly virulent and used in a secondary bioassay against various larval stages. Nomuraea rileyi could become an important biopesticide agent in an integrated pest management program for insect pest control.
There were a large number of young generation farmers in Thailand who were an agricultural entrepreneur, and needed to develop their competency level in business operation. The aims of this research were 1) to determine the competency of Young Smart A-SMEs, 2) to make plans for developing their competency level in business operations, 3) to reinforce and develop their competency level in business operations, and 4) to study their opinions on the reinforcement and development of their competency level in business operations. This investigation was conducted as a research and development study. The sample population was 215 Young Smart A-SMEs. The data were collected by group discussions, training course procedures and a questionnaire survey. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings were as follows: 1) Most of the Young Smart A-SMEs had bachelor degrees, IT skills and were united as 10 groups. 2) Two training course curriculums at national level were required; a curriculum on the development of packaging and label designing, and a curriculum on media technology for online marketing. Also, 38 curriculums were necessary at provincial level covering eight issues: (i) self-learning development, (ii) production resource management, (iii) production management, (iv) product value-added management, (v) product standard management, (vi) marketing and product distribution management, (vii) network group management, and (viii) coordination and communication management. 3) The training courses achieved the needs of members and adhered to the planned itineraries. 4) Young Smart A-SMEs were, on average, high satisfied of benefit (Mean = 4.16), with the training courses. Their knowledge before training was low level (Mean =2.52) but improved to highest level (Mean =4.49) on average after training.
Soil and water conservation; a process of minimizing the effects of land degradation, is necessary for sustainability of food production aimed at feeding the rapidly increasing global population. Soil erosion and subsequent transfer of the eroded particles have been seen as a major cause of land degradation. Budalangi area in Kenya is mainly flat with poor drainage and alluvial or black cotton soil with minimal tree cover. Flooding in the study area is believed to be as a result of sediments accumulating in the bed of River Nzoia over the years, making the river course channel to be above the general level of flood plain, resulting to overbank flow across the dykes. The study is to discuss the understanding of small scale farmers and their motivation on soil and water conservation practices. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data collection was mainly through questionnaire survey, both formal and informal interviews together with field visits. The sample was selected by simple random sampling technique from the entire study area. From the general outcome, majority of farmers could attribute the condition of their farm fertility to deposition of top soil from upstream. Respondents also related low productivity to floods and unreliable rainfall pattern in the area. The results showed that about 74.3% of the farmers in the study area are familiar with soil and water conservation with 42.6% of them putting to practice at least one measure to conserve soil and water. About 68.5% of the farmers are not practicing any soil and water conservation measures. Hence, there is need to strengthen small scale farmers’ knowledge and adoption of soil and water conservation such as rainwater harvesting to augment overreliance on direct rain for production and sustainable agriculture.
This study aimed to determine the percentage composition of the waste generated, the per capita waste generated per day, perception towards solid waste management practices of the residents of Ubay and the problems encountered in implementing the Solid Waste Management during the year 2015. This study employed descriptive-survey methods in determining the perception of the residents towards solid waste management and the problems encountered. As to the percentage composition, the researcher conducted documentary analysis from the data generated by the Solid Waste Management Office of the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Ubay, Bohol. A first-income class municipality in the island province of Bohol, Philippines. It is in the northeast of the province, and has an area of 335.06 square kilometers (129.37 sq. mi.) with 61 km (38 mi.) of coastline. It has 44 barangays. The Local Government Unit (LGU) of Ubay. One of the mandates of the government is to take care of the environment and protect the residents from various risks of environmental degradation. Findings showed that over fifty percent (50%) of the waste generated were biodegradable (organic) materials. The per capita waste generation was 0.065 kg. Residents had a moderately positive attitude towards solid waste management. The researches recommended that the LGU-Ubay, together with the barangay units, schools, NGO’s and other responsible persons, may find more effective and efficient ways of increasing residents’ participation level in solid waste management. The Solid Waste Management Board of Ubay may prioritize in strengthening the area of education and training to increase awareness of the residents regarding solid waste management. Further studies may be conducted formulating models that will show the solid waste flow of Ubay, Bohol (or other municipalities). An impact analysis of the strategies employed by municipalities in addressing problems of solid waste may be included.
Maintaining soil fertility is essential for prosperity and sustainability of any agricultural system. Nepal is facing major issues in maintaining soil fertility in agriculture sector mainly in mid-hills. Mid-hills, which accounts for more than 37% of total agriculture land has upland terrace farming system, which is intensively cultivated, with high labor input and high degree of subsistence. With the rise in population and increase in food demand soil fertility management is essential. The farmers are engaged in traditional farming practices which has evolved into complex system where livestock, husbandry, crop production, forestry are practiced together. The undulating topography, climatic condition, unavailability of fertilizer is some of the key factors causing land degradation and low productivity. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to identify farmers’ perception on existing problems of soil fertility in mid-hills of Nepal. This study was conducted on the basis of questionnaire surveys and field visits. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among households in eastern mid-hill region of Dhankuta District, Nepal. The results showed that farmers possessed indigenous knowledge for identifying and characterizing fertility of soils. Farmyard manure was used widely in maintaining soil fertility. Generally, farmers responded that soil erosion and low fertility was major problems faced in agriculture. Lack of resources and proper soil and management strategies was the main cause of the problem resulting in soil degradation and thus nutrient loss and decrease in productivity. To overcome such problems scientific approach on understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of soil should be applied to propose suitable sustainable conservation practices.
The Distance-Learning Model on Food Safety and Organic Agriculture Developed from the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy for the ASEAN Community was designed by selecting relevant topical video recordings and translating the contents into nine languages mostly used in the ASEAN region. Which used to educate the farmers regarding food safety, supply chain, and organic farming, and to promote the implementation of sufficiency economy into the ASEAN region. The aims of this research were: 1) to develop a distance-learning curriculum model on food safety and organic agriculture following the sufficiency economy philosophy for the ASEAN community, 2) to develop learning materials to accompany the program, and 3) to evaluate the benefits and success of the learning program. Research, development and evaluation were all administered. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Seminars were organized to garner information from 10 qualified experts in model development processes and procedures. A questionnaire survey was used to gather data from 70 participants of different nationalities to evaluate the learning program. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis. The findings were as follows: 1) one remarkable feature of a distance-learning curriculum was the use of video recordings as a major tool in the learning process, and learning by doing through group study by people living in adjacent communities, 2) the learning materials accompanying the program were available in nine ASEAN languages (Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Malay, Indonesian, Burmese, Chinese and English), and consisted of: (i) instructional videos covering 15 subjects including Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, Paradigm Shifts, Food Security, The Way of Organic Farming, Household Budget and Information Management for Planning, Knowledge Management, Soil and Water Management, Genetics Management, Alternative Energy, Safety and Organic Food Production, Food Safety Assurance, Packaging Design, Group Management, Distribution Management, and Edutainment, (ii) curriculum documents, handbooks and a list of selected media, and 3) the designated learning program was perceived to be of the “highest” value. The learning materials were rated “highly” appropriate but with the “highest” usefulness, and the designated learning program was perceived by the group to be at a “high” level.
A village type pottery industry was operating in a village of Talibon, in northern Bohol, Philippines which existed for quite sometime and was observed to be very slow in its improvement in terms of number and design of products, number of workers and the facilities remained obsolete. This study was conducted to determine the features of the village type pottery industry in terms of the beginnings of industry, the management structure, how pottery craft was learned, the process followed to produce a product, the source of raw materials, facilities and equipment used, designs of the products, the customers and the workers of the pottery. This was also conducted to determine the contribution of the industry to the local community. Further, the study was conducted to identify the level of satisfaction of the customers in terms of the product quality, quantity and timeliness of delivery of the product and to recognize the problems met by the industry. This study used descriptive survey method utilizing questionnaire, interview and actual observation. The result shows that this industry started in 1970s by the great grandparents of the present proprietors, the products were only limited to cooking pots, flower pots, and stove. Presently, this industry is managed by a couple, the husband as the manager and the wife as assistant manager. It has 5 workers in the production area, 3 males and 2 females who are daughters of the couple managing it. There were additional 2 workers, one helped in getting raw materials and the other one in selling the product. The result also shows that the raw materials were taken from the area near the pottery. It can be noted that improvised facilities and equipment were used in this pottery industry. Their customers were composed of walk-in customers and wholesalers. The result in the level of satisfaction on the products in terms of quantity, quality and timeliness in product delivery, revealed that the customers were Satisfied and Very Satisfied. The top three problems experienced were lack of capital, obsolete technology and lack of diversification. These results challenged the state university in Bohol and gave it the opportunity to use their capacity of helping this pottery industry in those aforementioned problems.
The Solar Energy Group of Pesticide Free Vegetable Growers was organized to collaboratively solve problems and manage a water-sharing system using solar energy and land management to grow pesticide free vegetables. The achievements of the administration of the group and network were truly astounding. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate the following: 1) the group and network management, 2) the factors contributing to the success of the group, and 3) the lessons learned and recommendations made for managing groups and networks. Qualitative data were collected from the group chairman, group committees, and 40 group members during an organized forum. Additional data were collected from the group chairman and three committees using in-depth interviews and this was analyzed for content. The results of the study were as follows: 1) The administrative structure of the group was based on community enterprise. The group planned their operations, especially activities in an appropriate production system and special rules for vegetable planting activities to control safety standards. They also followed regulations for water-sharing in vegetable production and met regularly once a month to discuss problem issues and group planning. They raised money from their members to establish funds for the operations and coordinated with other groups and agencies regarding support and joint activities. 2) Factors contributing to the success of the group were: (i) the unity of the members, (ii) the moral of the members, (iii) the self-sacrifice of the group with a patient, knowledgeable, and strong leader, (iv) the facility of joint production, land and water use management, (v) producing vegetables together which created a sense of pride and ownership, and (vi) operating a network and coordinating with outside agencies for support, especially to fill knowledge gaps. 3) The lessons learned and recommendations were seamlessly integrated and assimilated through group management using both informal and formal mechanisms. Knowledge network with information sharing among members derived from direct learning or real experiences through practical problem solving.
Sustainable development is one of the most important achievements in developing countries. Organic agriculture is one of the factors contribute to achieve sustainable development. However, implementation rates of organic agriculture are low in South East Asia. Several international organizations have been intervening in the agricultural sector in Cambodia. Interventions conducted by non-profit organization play a key role in the implementation of organic agriculture by farmers. However, previous studies have not thoroughly described the economic contribution of these interventions regarding organic agriculture in Cambodia. In Samrong Commune, Kampong Cham Province, a five-year longitudinal project was conducted to reduce financial losses in agriculture through interventions including implementation of organic agriculture and improving the agricultural skills of farmers. This study is aimed to determine the economic contribution of the interventions. Sample data from 64 farmers were collected through a questionnaire survey during the harvest season. Moreover, the amount of E. coli, which is an environmental indicator, was measured in compost boxes and vegetables in a farmland. The results showed a significant correlation (P<0.05) between the interventions and household income. This study provides evidence that the implementing of organic agriculture resulted in increased rural household income. However, E. coli from immature compost was found in 90% over their compost boxes and farmland. It implies that knowledge and proper techniques for increasing quality of organic fertilizer are needed to be emphasized.
The objectives were to analyze 1) the research methodology of graduation theses, 2) the result of graduation theses, 3) problems on commodity production adhering to government designated standards, and 4) synthesis of guidelines on the development of commodity production adhering to government designated standards. The sample population was 58 graduation theses agricultural extension and development in agricultural commodity production adhering to government designed standards. Twenty-six samplings were determined using purposive sampling methodology.The findings were as follows: 1) All the research methodology of the graduation theses followed quantitative research. Seventy percent studied by determining the sampling, and all the theses followed sampling methodology using Taro Yamane formula. Ninety-five percent selected sampling using the simple random sampling methodology. 2) Fifty percent of the theses were completed during the academic years 2001-2005, 34% were completed during years 2006-2010, and 16% were completed during years 2011-2015. Ninety-two percent studied good agricultural practice (GAP). Regarding agricultural commodities, 38.5% studied the production standards of fruit plants, 26.9% vegetables, 15.4% cattle, 11.5% rice and corn, and 7.7% flowering plants. In the academic aspect of agricultural extension and development, 38% studied the usage of agricultural production standards, 30% studied the adoption process, and 15% studied the learning process. 3) Regarding problems, most were at low level with agricultural commodity production adhering to the designated standards, and 4) To syntheses guidelines, related sectors should transfer knowledge and examine production regularly to comply with designated standards and reinforced them to create brand recognition and increase market opportunities.
A stable supply of irrigation water is essential to ensure agricultural productivity in arid regions. To efficiently use the limited water resources, upgrading of hard infrastructure, such as reducing leakage from channels and installing drip irrigation, and of soft infrastructure, such as introducing irrigation management involving local farmers, is being pursued. This study reviewed the rationality of participatory irrigation management (PIM) in Turpan, Xinjian, China. Turpan depends for its irrigation water on streams, pumped groundwater, and karez (qanat). PIM mainly involves management of irrigation water supplied from streams. Between 2013 and 2015, interviews with Turpan City’s Water Management Agency (WMA) branch office staff, PIM staff, and local farmers were conducted to collect information on water management. The findings showed that the founding of PIM organization resulted in the following benefits: (i) reduction of governing agency’s burden: PIM is now in charge of work that used to be performed directly by staff of the WMA branch office (ii) Prevention of illegal practices: PIM staff are elected from among local farmers, so there is a system of mutual surveillance. (iii) Smoother implementation of water management: Previously, there were conflicts between local farmers and staff from other regions, who were unaware of the local situation. Since establishment of the PIM, local farmers have taken charge of the water management, which facilitated communication between the water administrator and farmers. (iv) Enhanced interest in water conservation: Because farmers now directly manage their water distribution and maintain their infrastructure, they are more aware of the importance of conserving water. Regarding the disadvantages, during seasons with a risk of drought, water management requires operations 24 h a day and there are many housekeeping issues, so labor shortages are a problem. This latter issue occurred because the main source of finance is from water fees, which are set by a governmental agency. As a result, the PIM team could not secure a sufficient budget to hire more staff.
Soil salinization has being occurred not only in arid and semiarid region but in humid region under saline and shallow groundwater condition in the world. In Northeast Thailand, approximately 17% of land is salt- affected and it appears even in paddy fields in dry season. It is not easy to develop water resources in the region because of uneven rainfall patterns and geological formation such as unevenness of terrain. Rainfall in monsoon season charges soil water and groundwater, and it could be used as irrigation water resources. However, the water is salinized, and it needs treatment of desalinization process for the use of irrigation. In preliminary study, we developed artificially saturated mordenite with hydrogen ion for the first step of the development of the technology, and we found high rate of ion-exchange of the mordenite, sodium adsorption and hydrogen desorption, in test solution which was formed by one monovalent cation of sodium. However, soil and groundwater in salinized agricultural fields are not formed by one cation, containing various cations and pH is high, so that we need to reveal ion-exchange ability of the mordenite in such a complicate ion mixed conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the saturated mordenites as ion-exchangeable materials for desalinization and to reveal ion-exchange ability of it by batch test. Batch test was conducted using the saturated mordenite and groundwater taken from the salt-affected field in Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. As a result, we found that sodium ion of the groundwater which contains various cations was adsorbed selectively by saturated mordenite. It is also revealed that alkalization is solved since pH decreased by desorption of hydrogen ion from saturated mordenite to groundwater. Hence, we concluded that the saturated mordenite can be utilized as ion-exchangeable material for desalinization of saline soil and groundwater in the experimental field.
Urban forests including urban parks, secondary forests, and natural forests provide many benefits for citizens, such as recreational opportunities, scenic beauty, and cultural heritage value. Each has a different role in the provision of cultural ecosystem services (CESs) in a city. One issue with urban forests in Japan is the decrease of forests with the loss of CESs. The objective of this study was to develop a method to categorize the CESs of urban forests through multi-point field surveys as a case in Nagoya City, Japan. Then the equivalency and/or alternativeness of the forest CESs were examined. In total, 180 forests in the city were surveyed. The percentages of forests featuring aesthetic and daily recreation values were high. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis, the forests in the city were categorized into 9 types. Future issues include the idea that, in addition to CESs, other ESs should be considered as a part of a comprehensive ES assessment.
Brigada Eskwela is a volunteerism program which is annually launched to prepare the public schools for the opening of classes enlivening the spirit of solidarity among the school personnel, pupils, parents, and rural residents. Classroom repair, furniture repainting, and school ground cleaning are some of the Brigada Eskwela activities that are geared towards making schools disaster-prepared, ecologically-conscious, and conducive to learning. Having these annual activities along with the schools’ Disaster Preparedness program assures smooth opening of classes because teachers and pupils will no longer clean and set up their classrooms during the first day of school. This study aimed to determine the schools’ implementation of Brigada Eskwela and Disaster Preparedness Program in relation to the academic achievement of pupils in Ubay 1, Ubay 2, and Ubay 3 Districts of Bohol. This employed descriptive-normative survey. A total of 45 elementary schools were surveyed including 45 school heads, 422 teachers, and 180 rural residents. The findings showed that the Brigada Eskwela implementation was evaluated "excellent" so with the disaster preparedness as “very high capacity”. In turn, these programs had significantly improved the pupils’ academic achievement and had raised awareness among the rural residents the importance of culture of safety. School heads played an important role in the implementation of these programs. Their managerial skills potentially affected Brigada Eskwela implementation and disaster preparedness of the schools. It was then recommended that the rural residents may strengthen its disaster preparedness through establishing a Family Disaster Plan to avoid casualties from any hazard and calamity that may occur. Moreover, Brigada Eskwela should also be implemented in the private schools to intensify partnership towards their stakeholders.
Soil degradation resulting from salinity is a major obstacle to the optimal utilization of land resources. In Northeast Thailand, approximately 17% of the land is salt-affected due to salt bearing rocks, predominantly in Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Roi-Et and Mahasarakham provinces. The present extent of salt-affected soils in the Northeast already substantially restricts crop production in many areas especially rice production. This study aims to study using vermitechnology to rehabilitate saline paddy soil for rice production. The experiments were conducted to study the influence of earthworm and their activity on soil properties, production and growth of rice variety (Pathumthani 1) under the influence of salt. The results found that Activities of earthworms encourage the release of available plant nutrient, especially when associated with the utilization of organic matters. Applying 1% of biochar per 1 kg of dry soil, 650 kg of rice straw per Rai, and 1,000 kg of vermicompost per Rai can significantly increase organic carbon in soil in deteriorated paddy soil (EC= 0.08 – 0.13dS/m), slightly saline paddy soil level 1 (EC= 1.56 – 1.71 dS/m), and moderately saline paddy soil level 2 (EC= 2.90 – 3.47 dS/m). Moreover, the amount of total nitrogen, exchangeable sodium, exchangeable calcium, and exchangeable magnesium in soil also increased under all soil salinity level. The experiment under control condition indicated that activities of earthworms associated with the utilization of biochar, rice straw, and compost produced by earthworm enhanced the availability of plant nutrients. Furthermore, earthworms are soil organisms that benefit to soil property rehabilitation such as improving physical properties of soil by assisting on soil inversion. The burrowing by earthworm loosens the soil causing well drainage and aeration and improving water holding capacity. Activities of earthworms associated with the utilization of biochar, rice straw, and vermicompost in different soil salinity level under control condition enhanced growth rate of rice that increases rice productivity.
Porang is a kind of small scaly fish, as small as anchovies which thrive in brackish water. In a lake in Lake Wood, Zamboanga del Sur, a group of fishermen survived for many years because of Porang fishing and dried Porang industry. This study was conducted to determine the current status of the dried Porang industry in Lake Wood, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. This is a normative-descriptive study employing observation, interview, and questionnaire techniques. The 120 fisherfolks who were directly involved in the dried Porang industry were the respondents of the study. It was found out that there were problems and challenges which the respondents and the industry were facing at present. One of the problems met was the slowly decreased of Porang in the lake. The result also showed that their practices especially the hygienic practices were not in conformity with the code of practice for processing and handling of dried fish as reflected in the Philippine National Standards. It is recommended that a seminar about proper handling of dried fish be conducted so that the fisherfolks will be aware of it, thus leading to sustainable dried Porang industry. It is recommended further that these fisherfolks would also be educated on the proper way of catching this kind of fish to avoid their possible extinction in the lake.
In recent years, many case studies have been conducted on ecosystem service (ES) evaluation in both developed and developing regions. A method to integrate the ES evaluation has hitherto been undeveloped and a few systems been proposed for the same. Based on our previous studies on estimations of the potential supply of ES in both rural and urban areas, a modeling system capable of performing an integrated evaluation of ES is automatically applied into our study. A geographical and ecological information database of the ecosystem in Japan was connected, and an interface of an estimation model of the ecosystem services was connected to an integrated system. A system with a visible interface and clearly defined concepts and concept relationships, is helpful not only to researchers who are unfamiliar with GIS and modeling, but also to stakeholders and decision makers.
The study on a successful farmer network is a mixed-method research that focuses on mango farmers in Chachoengsao province under a protocol of multistage sampling. Several factors influencing farmers to set up their own network are common interests, problems and needs that led them to establish a new production system based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) in order to fulfill their customer needs in terms of quantity and quality. The results of hypothesis testing regarding the farmers’ opinions on GAP in the aspect of understanding, positive thinking and positive behavior before and after network setup revealed statistically significant difference. Farmers who owned different farm sizes had different opinions on GAP in terms of understanding and positive thinking before network setup, but not different after setup. Meanwhile, the positive behavior had no statistically significant difference before and after network setup. The network model should have an operating protocol to link inputs and outputs. Operation under suitable strategies can organize the farming system to fulfill customer needs by transferring appropriate changes directly to customers or target groups. The strategic map should start from giving knowledge, changing internal process management, fulfilling stakeholder expectation and end with fulfilling customer satisfactions under the support of government and private sectors.
In this study, the main objective was to evaluate the number of days attended at Farmers’ school and their academic ability. The research site was Snuol Commune, Kratié Province. First, the relationship between the characteristics of local farmers and the results of the achievement test was clarified. In addition, the educational effect of the Farmers’ school was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. 1) According to the results of the Multiple Correspondence Analysis, it was clear that the result of the achievement test was connected with characteristics of local farmers by educational background, gender, and whether or they attended Farmers’ school. 2) According to the results from the Multiple Regression Analysis, after being confirmed statistically, Farmers’ school attendance and educational background gave positive effects as a result of the achievement test. In addition, the results of the categorical regression analysis suggested the characteristic of the participant of the Farmers’ school statistically. The participants of the Farmers’ school already have the ability for reading and understanding basic Khmer. As for the educational content that the participant of the Farmers’ school expected at the same time, it was suggested that it was knowledge, except the Khmers word acquisition, such as arithmetic or the environmental problem. In conclusion, creating an opportunity for the non-formal education is a necessary condition for knowledge acquisition concerning the appropriate usage and environmental problem of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the local Cambodia area.
Ready to drink milk is one of the nutrient food for Thais as a way for human development in the long run. The research objectives were to 1) study the generality of ready to drink milk as a nutritional tool for human capital development of Thailand, 2) forecast the quantity of ready to drink milk for Thai consumers, and 3) find out the factors affected on consumers’ demand quantity for Thais. The secondary data were collected as time series data gathering from Food Intelligence Center of Thailand from the year of 1987 to 2014, the Office of Agricultural Economics Office, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Department of Internal Commerce, Ministry of Commerce, Bank of Thailand. Data analysis was applied descriptive statistics which comprised of arithmetic mean, standard deviation, linear forecasting, and growth rate while inferential statistics composed of multiple linear regression analysis in the form of double natural logarithm, T-test, F-test, the Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Durbin-Watson (DW). The research results revealed that 1) ready to drink milk as a nutritional tool as human capital development of all Thai. There obviously trended to get the high potential nutritional consume for Thai as a nutrient food for people of Thailand with the increasingly demand. 2) For ready to drink milk forecasting, quantity demand for ready to drink milk of Thai consumers has been significantly increased as a high nutrient quality drink of essential protein and calcium for Thais. 3) factors affected on ready to drink milk were comprised of its retail prices, quantity of consumer, income per capita as well as the advertising expenditure of ready to drink milk venders. Due to the research results, Thai government should strongly promote ready to drink milk as a tool for human capital to develop both physical and dietary for Thai as a tool for human capital sustainable development.