International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development
Online ISSN : 2433-3700
Print ISSN : 2185-159X
ISSN-L : 2185-159X
Volume 6 , Issue 2
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • BOONTARIKA THONGDONPHUM, KITTIMA VANICHKUL, SAMING CHAMPASRI, SUPHAMAS ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Clark's Anemonefish (Amphiprion clarkii) is one of marine ornamental fish. The nutritional requirements of A. clarkii are important for their growth. This study aimed to assess the effect of different diets on A. clarkii growth performance. The experiments comprised of three treatments including (1) grinding pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), (2) grinding white perch fish (Lates calcarifer), and (3) grinding surf clam (Paphia undulata). Growth rate, survival rate, and other growth parameters were studied within 30 days after starting of the experiments. Results indicated that growth rate of A. clarkii based on weight and length was highly significant on grinding white perch fish treatment. Average daily growth was also the best on grinding white perch fish treatment (0.46±0.09g), followed by ground pacific white shrimp (0.37±0.04g) and grinding surf clam (0.35±0.03g), respectively. Survival rate showed significant difference on grinding surf clam (97.78±3.85%), followed by grinding pacific white shrimp (75.57±8.38%) and grinding white perch fish (64.44±5.09%), respectively. Food conversion ratio tended to be better on grinding white perch fish. This finding indicates that grinding white perch fish could be used as dietary source of A. clarkii.

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  • INTIRA LICHANPORN, NUNCHANOK NANTHACHAI, PALIDA TANGANURAT, UNCHALIN S ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 6-10
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff) is a popular tropical fruit which currently has about 99.37% consumer demand. In the case of exporting, the main problem is that longkong fruit drops from its bunch after harvesting. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study the effect of nitrous oxide on physiological and biochemical changes during fruit drop of longkong postharvest. The addition of 90% nitrous oxide (at times 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h) induced the reduction of loosening of longkong fruit after harvest. Exposure to nitrous oxide delayed the onset of fruit drop of the longkong bunches with the most effective treatment being fumigation with 90% nitrous oxide for 6 h. Longkong fruit exposed to 90% nitrous oxide for 24 h, showed an increased respiration rate and ethylene production. While Longkong fruit exposed to 90% nitrous oxide, there was no significant effect on the activity of enzymes polygalacturonase (PG), pectinesterase (PE), cellulase (Cx) and peroxidase (POD) during storage.

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  • NOEL T. LOMOSBOG, NOEL S. GAMIL
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 11-16
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Molave (Vitex parviflora Juss.) is a timber species which naturally grows in the province of Bohol and is considered as the province’ flagship timber species. Molave is generally used for furniture, hand tools, and is known for its durability as beams on bridges and as railroad ties without artificial preservatives. Molave is also a recommended afforestation species in the marginal uplands. The lack of information about the location and distribution of superior Molave mother trees is a major constraint in scaling up the production of high quality seedlings of native timber trees in Bohol. The study aimed to phenotypically characterize the potential mother trees in Municipality of Lila, Bohol using the standard selection criteria (stem straightness, stem forking, branch angle, stem circularity, tree health, branch thickness, and branch persistence), which were developed by the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR). Specifically, to know the number of potential, Molave is a mother tree with its merchantable height, diameter and elevation. Molave trees with at least 28 cm in diameter and at least 3 meters in height were considered as potential mother trees. Out of 242 potential mother trees, only 160 trees satisfied the DENR Administrative Order 2010-11. The average height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) were 5.91 meters and 40.47 cm, respectively. The biggest DBH recorded is 110 centimeters while the highest merchantable is 12 meters. On the other hand, the average elevation was 120.9 meters above sea level. Many good Molave mother trees in Lila, Bohol, Philippines are qualified to provide seed for tree propagation and to produce quality seedlings for reforestation of the Bohol upland areas especially on the National Greening Program (NGP) of the Philippine government.

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  • NUNCHANOK NANTHACHAI, INTIRA LICHANPORN, PALIDA TANGANURAT, UNCHALIN S ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 17-22
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The objective of this research was to investigate the antifungal efficiency of pummelo peel extracted with different solvents on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Crude extracts from pummelo peels were eluted with four solvents, such as ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Chemical compounds of the crude extracts were analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC and inhibition the growth of C. gloeosporioides was tested by PDA culture. The result showed that limonene was the major compound in all extracts (79.55-89.91%). α-Phellandrene and 2, 6-octadien-1-ol, 3, 7-dimethyl were found only in crude extracts using ethyl acetate as a solvent. In addition, the extract was eluted with ethyl acetate also had the amount of flavonoids: nobiletin and 3-hydroxy-7, 3’, 4’, 5’- tetramethoxyflavone, higher than those eluted with other solvents. Inhibition the growth of C. gloeosporioides of pummelo peel extracted with dichloromethane, ethanol, hexane and ethyl acetate were 19.16, 52.81, 65.58, and 95.61%, respectively. Therefore, pummelo peel extracted with ethyl acetate was the highest efficiency on controlling C. gloeosporioides (p ≤ 0.05).

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  • MARINA A. LABONITE, SANDRA MCDOUGALL, GORDON ROGERS, JOSE G. LABONITE, ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 23-28
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study assessed the effectiveness of coconut frond or cocofrond mulch in managing weed and insect pest population in tomato crops. Specifically, it aimed to determine if cocofrond mulch can reduce weed infestation in tomato; to evaluate its influence in minimizing insect pest population affecting the crop; and to find out the yield performance of tomato mulched with cocofronds. Randomized Complete Block Design with four treatments and four replicates was employed in a 139.50m2 experimental lot using the Diamante Max variety. The woven and unwoven cocofronds, polyethylene plastic mulches, and control plots with hand weeding were compared. Weed and insect pest species, its population counts, and yield data were taken and analyzed statistically through analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD Test. The findings revealed that either woven or unwoven coconut frond used as bed mulch was as effective as black plastic mulch in suppressing the dominant broadleaf, the Button weed (Borreria laevis) but had no effect on the populations of the other 17 minor weed species observed. Bed mulch reduced the numbers and damage caused by the 12-spotted ladybird beetle (Epilachna philipinensis remota) larvae but had no effect on its adult population nor on the damage caused by other pests like the green looper (Chrysodeixis chalcites) and fruitworm (Helicoverpa armigera) larvae. Neither coconut frond nor black plastic bed mulch had any significant effect on tomato crop’s yield. These findings are ample basis for a wider exploration on the potential use of coconut fronds as a low-cost weed and pest management techniques for organic vegetable production.

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  • PHEM MENGHAK, THIM SOKHA, THENG KOUCH, SENG MOM
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 29-34
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Ratanakiri is remotely located in northeast of Cambodia about 600 km from Phnom Penh. Pig production of Garay ethnicity was challenged with poor feeding and high risk of mortality. The study aimed to compare the effect of feed supplement, estimate the economic efficiency, and study the adoption of target group to the demonstrated experiment pig fattening. A group discussion was launched to select 5 volunteer farmers from each village who met the criteria. The chosen farmers were trained on pig fattening process. Each of them had been subsidized two piglets; hand in hand pen construction, and feed supplements for 4 months. Some information was informally interviewed to understand the current feeding and management; and determine the suitable interventions. Farmers were then randomly allocated into two treatments, viz. T0 (Control group – free range feeding) and T1 (Supplement group – 40% concentrates, 30% rice bran, 30% cassava chip).The growth rate was recorded every 2 weeks for 4 months. After a 7-month period, all adopted farmers were interviewed by using questionnaire for impact study. The results have shown significant 3-fold improvement in daily average weight gain of improved diet group although the economic efficiency of the two groups did not differ. After seven months of interventions on the ground, some changes were observed. For example, 80% of the selected farmers kept pigs in pens regularly and started to utilized local available feeds. Thirty percent was willing to buy commercial feeds. All management tasks were done 50%, 40%, 10% by wives, husbands, and children, respectively. Vaccination was not totally implemented by them. We concluded that our interventions have changed some behaviors of focused famers and neighbors on the production in terms of management practices and feeding for pig fattening. More feeding options need to be assessed for better economic efficiencies.

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  • SINISA BERJAN, HAMID EL BILALI, ALEKSANDRA DESPOTOVIC, SNEZANA JANKOVI ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 35-41
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Bosnia, Montenegro, and Serbia (BMS) are in a phase of consolidation, which implies rising of economic growth, agricultural productivity, and fostering rural development. Therefore, it is crucial to have a clear idea about problems faced by rural population in order to design effective rural development policies. The paper aims at highlighting the main problems in rural areas of BMS with a particular focus on those hampering good governance and increased diversification of their rural economies. For each country, significance of the problems was identified; and a critical analysis was performed to highlight causes, implications in terms of rural governance and policy, and potential solutions. Problems were identified in the framework of surveys dealing with agricultural and rural development governance that involved representatives of public, civil society, and international organizations: 120 in Bosnia (winter 2011), 50 in Montenegro (winter 2012), and 120 in Serbia (summer 2013). Economic problems include difficult access to financial resources, low level of investments, rural economy diversification, limited employment opportunities, small and uncompetitive farms, and rural enterprises. Remoteness and isolation, bad local natural resources management, and increased pollutions were the main environmental and geographic problems mentioned by the interviewees. Socio-cultural and demographic problems encompass rural poverty, low quality of life, gender inequity, low human capital of the rural population, unpopularity of agriculture and alarming negative demographic trends. Focus of local development strategies mainly on agriculture and lack of local spatial plans are some of the political and regulatory problems. There are also problems related to the poor physical infrastructure and services, and lack of processing facilities and local markets. For smooth accession to the European Union (EU), BMS should address these problems urgently in a systemic and holistic way to unlock the growth potential of rural areas, taking stock of the current EU’s rural development policy.

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  • CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, MONGKON TA-OUN, BARRY NOLLER
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 42-47
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Cassava industry plays an important socio-economic role in Thailand economy. The growth of the cassava processing industry has resulted in extensive water pollution, as it generates large amounts of wastewater with extremely high concentrations of organic pollutants from washing and extraction. The need for wastewater management from cassava processing was apparent and fit with green technology for reuse of wastewater for agriculture. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpueum), a perennial species, has become a priority source of biomass for alternative energy production in Thailand, as the National Energy Policy Council has raised the target of power production from Napier Grass to 3,000MW under the 10-year alternative energy development plan (2012-2021) for Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using Napier Grass cultivation from cassava industry wastewater. Wastewater quality (effluent and influent) from cassava industry and its impact on soil chemical properties were studied at a site in Kalasin province, northeast Thailand to observe the effects of different concentrations (0%, 25, 50%, 75% and 100%) on germination test and Napier Grass biomass production. The wastewater characteristics were: pH of 7.2, EC 4dSm-1, BOD 119mgL-1, COD 1070mgL-1, TS 3230mg L-1, TKN 207mg L-1, TP 226mgL-1 and water soluble K 1490mgL-1. The soil exposed to wastewater gave higher EC, more organic matter accumulation, higher total N, and available P when compared to soil without being exposed to cassava wastewater. The results showed that the wastewater concentrations significantly increased the Napier grass biomass. Therefore, wastewater from cassava industry can be used in Napier grass production as an example of application of green technology.

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  • SOMPORN PLEANJAI, PONGSRI SIWARASAK
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 48-53
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Nowadays, bio-ethanol is playing an important role as an alternative fuel for passenger cars in Thailand. The use of biofuel can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it is derived from plant materials. This study aimed to analyze greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ethanol production from agro-industrial fruit residues based on a life cycle approach. The results showed that the life cycle GHG emissions of ethanol production were found to be 123.10 kg CO2-eq/kg of anhydrous ethanol. The main source of GHG emission was the electricity used in the process stage (97.83%) and the second was materials and reagents used in the stage (2.64%). It showed major energy consumption came from the conversion process to produce ethanol. Another encouraging result is that 1 kg non-pretreated pineapple peel waste inputs could produce 525 g of ethanol fuel; or it is was estimated to be 52-53% of ethanol production. Therefore, agro-industrial fruit residues can be feedstock for ethanol production in Tropical countries.

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  • JEERANUCH SAKKHAMDUANG, MACHITO MIHARA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 54-60
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Low economical return is the main constraint that makes farmers not grow more trees in salt affected areas. So, the research interest was paid to the applicable agro-forestry system combining advantages of trees and crops for rehabilitating salt affected soils and increasing local farmers’ income. Accordingly, existing agro-forestry systems in salt affected and non-salt affected areas in Khon Kaen province were investigated and evaluated. For the evaluation, the plant profile of each system was described in the investigation plot at 20m x 20m. In addition, Simpson and Shannon indexes were used to evaluate plant diversity of each investigation plot. Agro-forestry systems on salt affected areas could be categorized into five types: patch forests in farmlands, trees on paddy bunds, tree plantations associated with animal husbandry, home gardens, and trees in vegetable gardens. On the other hand, agro-forestry systems in non-salt affected areas could be categorized into seven types: trees in farm boundaries, trees on paddy bunds, tree plantations associated with animal husbandry, trees in home gardens, trees in vegetable gardens, trees in fruit orchards, and trees and aquaculture. The results of the two indexes revealed that the diversity of plants in agro-forestry systems in non-salt affected areas was higher than that in salt affected areas, except in the systems of tree plantations associated with animal husbandry and of trees in home gardens. It was considered that as the plant diversity in salt affected areas was lower than that in non-salt affected areas due to soil salinity; local people in salt affected areas kept higher plant diversity in the systems of tree plantations associated with animal husbandry and of trees in home gardens for their livelihoods.

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  • ANCHALEE SAWATTHUM, RAWADEE KUMLERT
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 61-65
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Stingless bees play an important role in pollination of local economic crops. During rainy season, numbers of stingless bee population decline because of lack of food plants. It can lead to colony collapse situation. The main purpose of the first study was to survey the pollen food source of stingless bees in the beginning of rainy season (June) to dry season (December) in the rambutan orchard plantation area in Chantaburi province. The result revealed that 11 species of blooming flowers in observation area were visited by stingless bees in June, five species in October, and four species in December. The second study aimed to identify species of pollen food source from pollen load collected from stingless bees (Tetragonula pegdeni and Lepidotrigona terminate) colonies in vegetable planting area. It was found that the most favorite plants that stingless bees collected as their pollen food source were amaranth (Amaranthus lividus) and corn (Zea mays. Linn).

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  • MAKOTO OOBA, KIICHIRO HAYASHI, TAKAHIRO SUZUKI, RUI LI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 66-72
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Many cities lose their green space and ecosystem services, especially in developing countries, which represent a problem as serious as an environmental pollution. Japan has also experienced the problem as a result of rapid economic growth. A system to assess ecosystem services and to create conservation maps in urban area was developed for use as a policy suggestion for urban planning. Nine ecosystem services were calculated by proxy variables in the studied area, Nagoya city, Japan. After selecting a subset of relatively and highly independent proxy variables, five ecosystem services significantly decreased before and after a period of strong economic growth (1955 and 1997). Distributions of the ecosystem services had trends of fragmentation indicated by a cluster analysis. Conservation priority maps created by using the conservation planning software called Zonation were presented. In the eastern and western areas, ecosystem services decreased with the loss of green space indicated by the authors in a previous study. The conservation priority level of the central area was relatively high due to the loss of green space. The results of this study are helpful planning for green space and offset-evaluating system.

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  • KATSUYUKI SHIMIZU, YASUYUKI KUSAKA, YOSHINOBU KITAMURA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 73-78
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper discusses estimates of hydroelectricity potential using irrigation ponds in mountainous areas. Hydroelectric power output is calculated from hydrological observations such as discharge from the ponds and water level at two irrigation ponds. Although these ponds have almost the same water storage capacity, water discharge patterns differ due to differences in the command areas. Results show that water management influences the pattern of hydroelectric power generation. The use of electricity is also important to consider since irrigation ponds in mountainous areas are distant from villages, which have no electricity infrastructure. In most cases, the irrigation ponds in mountainous areas are difficult to access. In addition, most of the water managers are aging and are having difficulty maintaining irrigation ponds and its water management. Therefore, using hydroelectric power to support the operation and maintenance of irrigation ponds would be one of the best ways to use the hydroelectric power generated at irrigation ponds. Finally, a field experiment of a micro-hydroelectricity system is conducted at an irrigation pond and the pond monitoring system is installed.

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  • SOMALY CHAN
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 79-86
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Analysis of Fiscal Gap and Financing of Cambodia’s Protected Area (PA) conducted by the Department of International Conventions & Biodiversity, Ministry of Environment (MoE), aimed to identify resource gaps in the management of 23 PAs of Cambodia. The pressure & response indicators were used to analyze resource gaps. Pressure indicators were population, number of visitors of each PA, roads, and hiking trails within PAs; while response indicators included the number of full time staff and operational expenditure. To examine resource gaps for PAs management, all PAs were classified into three clusters according to the area size. The comparisons between pressure and response demonstrated trends of existing resources for the management of PAs, therefore they were analyzed by pairing pressure and response indicator. To calculate resource gaps, two benchmarks were set for each cluster: the average and the highest. Each PA resource gap was identified based on two rules: 1) bringing the number of fulltime staff and operational expenditure that was below average to the “average benchmark”; 2) bringing the number of fulltime staff and operational expenditure that was higher than the average to the “highest benchmark”. As a result, the total gap of full time staff in 2009 was 449 personals, equal to 1/3 of existing staff. However, the gap of full time staff in this context did not take into account of their capacity to fulfill PA management tasks. The total operational expenditure gap in 2009 was 1,221,405 USD, equal to 25% of the benchmark estimation of 2,462,881 USD. In conclusion, for better management of 23 PAs, the budget for PAs operation should be doubled; therefore it should be increased up to 2.5 million USD per year.

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  • FUMIE TAKANASHI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 87-93
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study investigates the potential of “transformed” agricultural cooperatives in northern Vietnam to support local agriculture as the market-oriented economy develops. This case study approach examines four agricultural cooperatives introduced by the local government. This study finds that, first, cooperatives try to provide agricultural support to members, but the private sector mainly leads this business. Second, the range of agricultural cooperative business activities is expanding from production to livelihood support. Third, quite a few cooperatives provide marketing support and began to direct production instead of selling their members’ products in order to secure the quantities required to fulfill their contracts. The results empirically indicate that cooperatives’ business activities has limited impact on local agriculture or their members.

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  • TOMAS D. REYES, JR., JERALYN B. ABADINGO, SHIELA G. TABUNO, EUNICE KEN ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 94-101
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study assessed the present vegetation composition of the proposed site for the Tarsier Tourism Center (PTTC) at Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol and performed comparative analysis with the existing Tarsier Sanctuary (TS) at Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol. The bases for comparison were the computed importance values, species richness, species dominance, and percent distribution of plants according to self-defined diameter at breast height DBH classes. Results showed that both sites had very high species richness and evenness values. Common overstorey and understorey plant species found in both areas were katagpo (Psychotria sp.), sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C.B. Rob] Merr.) and bagauak (Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.). Apart from sagimsim (S. brevistylum [C.B. Rob.] Merr.), selaginella (Selaginella cuppresina Lin.), and lunas (Lunasia amara Blanco) were also common in the ground vegetation of both areas. Percent distribution of trees according to self-defined DBH classes revealed that PTTC had 87.55% of the total recorded plants with DBH measurements of ≤10cm. This was found lower by almost 10% from TS. Considerable percentages of trees were also shared in other DBH classes for PTTC. DBH class range of 10-20cm had 6.88%, while 5.58% was computed for DBH class of >20cm. Percent distribution of trees on these DBH ranges (especially on DBH class >20cm) indicated the presence of medium and large trees. The largest DBH measured in PTTC was 70cm, while in TS was only 22cm. Based on the findings of the study, it has been concluded that the proposed 10-ha site in Villa Aurora, Bilar is suited to be utilized as Tarsier Tourism Center. In case the proposed project is to be pursued, enclosure similar to what has been constructed in Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol, Philippines should also be established to prevent stray animals from predating the captive tarsiers.

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  • TOMAS D. REYES, JR, ERWIN G. LUDEVESE
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 102-109
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study aimed at assessing the biomass and carbon stocks of all major land uses in Wahig-Inabanga Watershed, Bohol, Philippines and to estimate its total carbon budget. The “A priori stratification cum purposive sampling” was used. Field measurements were conducted following the destructive and non-destructive methods. The total C stored in the different land uses surveyed in the watershed was estimated at 3.89 Megatons, 83.23% of which was held in the cultivated perennial crops. Among the land uses assessed, it was only mangrove which had lower carbon density estimate relative to previously reported values indicating substantial degradation of mangroves vegetation over the years. The possibility of increasing its potential to store more carbon could only be improved if appropriate management and alternative livelihood interventions, coupled with conservation and protection measures are properly implemented.

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  • ARUNEE PROMKHAMBUT, PIKUL MANUTA, ANUCHA LAOKEN, KIRIYA SUNGTHONGWISES ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 110-114
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Quality of stakes is an important factor to determine the germination and plant population, consequently the tuber yield of cassava. Storage of cassava stakes before planting can affect the quality of the cutting. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of different storage stake methods on germination, growth, and yield of cassava. The field experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted in Yasothorn soil series during April-October 2014 in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The three stake storage methods comprised of storage under tree shade, under sunlight and store under sunlight with gunny sack coverage. Local cultivar of cassava was employed and stakes were stored for 45 days before planting. The results showed that moisture content of the stake, available part and germination percentage at 7 days after planting (DAP) of the stake stored under the sun with gunny sack coverage (69.08%, 73.93% and 85.71%, respectively) was significantly higher than that under shade (57.23% , 47.56% and 28.57%, respectively) and in sun (55.59%, 68.13% and 40.47%, respectively ). However, germination at 14 DAP and survival rate at 30 DAP were not significantly different among storage methods but stakes covered with gunnysack tended to be higher than other methods. Stakes stored by covered with gunnysack gave the highest plant height at 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 72, and 180 DAP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in leaf, shoot and total aboveground dry weight, tuber yield and starch contents that were found amongst the storage methods. The stakes stored under the sun and covered with gunnysack tended to give the highest values. This study shows the potential method for storing cassava stakes under field conditions before planting.

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  • KANITA THANACHAROENCHANAPHAS, OROSE RUGCHATI
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 115-120
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to assess the impact of atmospheric temperature and humidity change on yield of Thai soybean, Chiang Mai 60 cultivar. The research experiment was conducted during July - October 2013 at Naresuan University Crops Field, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Soybean seed Chiang Mai 60 cultivars were planted in 16 open top chambers (OTCs) under 4 different temperature and humidity levels. The four simulated climate change situations in OTCs were, lower than ambient temperature, higher than ambient temperature, combined elevated temperature and high humidity and ambient temperature level, which all were controlled by an electrical system. Results indicated that yield loss by statistical significance occurred in all Low-level temperature treatment (25±2.9 °C), High-level temperature treatment (37±2.2°C), and high Temperature-humidity (36±2.8°C/ 81.7±2.2%), compared with ambient-level temperature treatment (31±1.7°C). Exposure to simulated climate change situation in Low-level temperature treatment obviously reduced total pod/plant and total seed/plant by 40.8% and 48.5%, respectively. High-level temperature caused yield loss in total pods/plant and total seeds/plant by 35.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The combined effect of high temperature and humidity on soybean crop reduced total pods/plant and total seeds/plant about 36.4% and 47%, respectively. Finally, low temperature evidently increased in lipid content and all types of fatty acid in experiment, whereas the high temperature treatment could reduce the total mono-unsaturated fatty acids. It was concluded that temperature change situations at above and lower than ambient level in growing season could induce yield loss and some fatty acid in Thai soybean, Chiang Mai 60.

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  • MARIA DANESA S. RABIA, JOMEL G. BAOBAO, GUILLERMO P. TUTOR, ERNESTO C. ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 121-127
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The effect of periodic fertilization on natural productivity, growth and survival during the nursery of Litopenaeus vannamei under a zero water exchange set up was investigated. Nursery culture was carried out for 15 days in 2 m3 indoor concrete tanks with stocking density of one post larvae (PL)·liter-1 using PL 16 shrimp. Urea and chicken manure were initially applied a week before stocking and added weekly to maintain green water condition. There was no significant difference in the phytoplankton densities and microbial flocs in the two treatments. The results demonstrated that the weekly periodic application of urea in a zero water exchange set up was not viable while fertilization using chicken manure improved feed conversion rate as well as shrimp survival and production.

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  • NAKSAYFONG KHOUNNAVONGSA, CHULEEMAS BOONTHAI IWAI, THAM C. HOANG
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 128-132
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aquatic resources of the Mekong River are important to support the livelihoods of a large percentage of 60 million or more people living in the Lower Mekong Basin. A study on the impact of heavy metals on tropical freshwater fish in the Mekong River is needed. Ecotoxicology of copper on freshwater fish was studied using field-collected water from two local sites along the Lower Mekong Basin in Lao PDR, which focused on two different water hardness. In this study, US EPA method was used for the acute toxicity test to larvae Labeo rohita with 7 different copper concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.09, 0.16, 0.23, 0.3, and 0.37mg/L) in moderately hardness of water (108±0.00mg/L as CaCO3) and (0, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.09, and 0.13mg/L) in soft hardness of water (20±2.83mg/L as CaCO3). The mortalities of fish were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. The results clearly showed that amount of mortalities were increased from low to high copper concentrations. The 96-hr LC50 values of copper on larvae L. rohita with moderately hardness and soft hardness of water were 0.106 and 0.038 mg/L, respectively.

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  • SNEZANA JANKOVIC, ALEKSANDRA DESPOTOVIC, SINISA BERJAN, HAMID EL BILAL ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 133-139
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Agriculture is still important for socio-economic development in rural areas of Bosnia, Montenegro, and Serbia (BMS), especially in terms of employment and income generation. Good extension is recognized as a key to agricultural development. The paper aims to provide an overview on public agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS) in BMS. It is based on an extended secondary data review and primary data collected by questionnaires with rural people, as well as semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with agricultural advisors and extension specialists carried out in the years 2012-2013. Current agricultural extension structures has mainly been developed in the last two decades with international donors’ help. Public extension structures exist besides other advisory services providers. Advisors use many groups and individual extension methods. Advisory services face many financial, management, and technical problems. Extension agents spend most of their working hours doing administrative tasks and lack systematic professional in-service training offers. Agriculture multifunctionality and the increasing rural economy diversification represent a real challenge for agricultural extension services. Public extension is largely focused on crop and animal production while rural development is only partially served. Rural advisory work is restricted to the activities of individual extension agents, as well as NGOs, donor projects, and private advisors. The involvement of other actors in rural extension work is crucial if the system is to meet rural people’s needs. AEAS have been trying to address the emerging challenges through modernization of their extension approaches and communication media, as well as diversification and decentralization of their services. Nevertheless, there are still some weaknesses that should be overcome. Developing a pluralistic, participatory, decentralized, farmer-led, and market-driven advisory system is a milestone in the process of promoting rural innovation and diversification, and harmonization with the European Union’s acquis.

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  • HAMID EL BILALI, SINISA BERJAN, ADRIANA RADOSAVAC, ALEKSANDRA DESPOTOV ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 140-146
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rural areas in the Western Balkans are experiencing two profound changes i.e. increased diversification of the rural economy and new governance models and arrangements. The paper aims at providing some insights into linkages and interdependences between rural livelihoods, diversification, and rural governance in Bosnia, Montenegro, and Serbia (BMS). In particular three different conceptual frameworks were used to analyze governance-rural development, governance-rural livelihoods and governance-rural economy diversification linkages. Input data to substantiate the conceptual frameworks in the rural contexts of BMS were the results of surveys dealing with rural governance and rural livelihoods diversification performed in the period 2011-2013. There is a linkage between agricultural and rural development governance and coordination, and exploitation of the full potential for rural livelihoods and economies diversification. Governance is relevant for rural livelihood diversification and rural development both as process and structure. Governance - comprising institutions, policies, and processes - affects access to and use of livelihood assets with impacts on diversification. Diversification is also affected by a set of sectoral policies that go beyond agriculture. Government policies can act as a stimulus to the diversification of economic activities of rural households. Governance - as actors and institutions - also affects diversification. Governance arrangements determine the range of actors involved in policy design. Depending on actors involved and their interests the policy character and architecture are defined. Meanwhile, also diversification has impacts in terms of governance in rural areas. In fact, changes that happen in rural areas, thanks to diversification, influence also rural governance and policy. Many new rural actors are consulted about rural development which was not the case in the past. Diversification affects the typology of actors that are involved in policy design which has implications in terms of priority policy measures definition. These insights should be taken into consideration to redesign rural development policy.

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  • REGUCIVILLA A. POBAR
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 147-152
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Guyabano fruit is from guyabano tree “Anone muricate”, a small tree, native to Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, Guyabano can also be found in Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela, and sub-Saharan African countries. The tree is adaptable to tropical climate and is currently cultivated for its fruits in most Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Guyabano tree is usually 5 to 7 meters tall, with characteristics of fruit bearing, broadleaf, flowering, and evergreen trees. Guyabano or soursop is known to fight cancer, diabetes mellitus, and other illnesses. It is nutritious, as it is high in carbohydrates, particularly significant amount of fructose, vitamin C, vitamin B1, and vitamin B2. With the mentioned benefits of Guyabano, the author is motivated to come up with a product that allows convenient consumption, availability, and attractiveness for all ages of consumers. In this study, the author ventured into producing a type of candy by using pulp of Guyabano fruit. The study sought to determine the candy’s acceptability and promoted its utilization to rural community. The study also identified shelf life and marketability of the product. This study is an experimental research using four-point hedonic scale in rating its acceptability in overall preference, appearance, texture, scent, taste, and aftertaste. A total of 100 participants rated the product consisted of 65 students and people from rural communities and 35 faculty members. The result showed that both faculty and community members had the same descriptive rating, in five attributes: overall preference, appearance, texture, taste and aftertaste; however, they was a difference in their ratings for scent attribute; students rated only Like while the faculty members rated Like Very Much for this attribute. It was also found that the product was marketable and could last for a month. It can be concluded that Gummy Guyabano Candy is acceptable and can be prepared in the community because of the availability of ingredients, tools and equipments and easy to follow procedures.

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  • MONTIP JANKEAW, NATAGARN TONGPHANPHARN, RATTANAPON KHOMRAT, CHULEEMAS ...
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 153-158
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal contaminations (cadmium, chromium, and lead) in meat and crustaceans products from three markets of Pathumthani province, Thailand. Heavy metals from beef, pork, chicken, scallop, and prawn were analyzed by using ICP-OES. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations ranges found in meat and crustaceans’ products were 0.002-0.032mg/kg for cadmium, 0.003-0.040mg/kg for chromium, and 0.006-0.200mg/kg for lead. The levels of heavy metal contamination in all products are still below the food safety standard of Thailand. The maximum levels of metals in meat and crustaceans products were found as follows: lead > chromium > cadmium, in the three markets. The results of this study provide valuable information to livestock and aquaculture production for food-safety products, and for protection of human health.

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  • KAY KHAING LWIN, KIICHIRO HAYASHI, MAKOTO OOBA
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 159-165
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rapid urban development may induce deterioration in biodiversity and ecosystem services (BD/ESs) at the global scale. According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) 2005, it is well known that biodiversity provides benefits in the form of ESs. In particular, four types of ESs (namely, provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services) were defined in a previous study. Here, a case study was conducted in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. First, the primary unit values of each ES were obtained based on a literature review. Second, by utilising a satellite image of Nay Pyi Taw from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite, land-use types were classified into five categories: forest areas, urban areas, agricultural land, water areas, and bare land. Then, the unit values of each ES were applied to develop seven types of ESs and habitat maps and a priority layer map was created using the Zonation software. The results revealed the spatial distribution of ESs and the priority areas for conservation. In future, this method can be used to consider a wider range of ESs.

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  • TOMAS D. REYES, JR.
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 166-171
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study attempted to compare and evaluate the two landslide hazard assessment models, semi-quantitative (index-based) and statistical regression (bivariate statistical analysis and logit regression) in predicting landslide prone areas in Wahig-Inabanga Watershed, Bohol, Philippines. This was performed by comparing the predictive power of each model based on the frequency distribution of past landslide events. Findings revealed that the combined bivariate statistical analysis and logit regression model outdone index-based method in predicting landslide occurrences. Results indicated high prediction accuracy on statistical model greater than the 75% threshold level set for evaluation on both pooled moderate to very high hazard zone and the combined high and very high hazard zone with accuracy values of about 83.82% and 76.72%, respectively. Conversely, the semi-quantitative model failed to meet the accuracy threshold. The study showed that statistical regression model, though relatively difficult to implement, can be a better substitute to the most commonly used semi-quantitative method as a decision-support tool for watershed management and land use planning in relation to landslide risk mitigation, reduction, adaptation, and management.

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  • MARINA A. LABONITE, DENNIS B. JOMOC
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 172-177
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To increase production, land productivity, and farming efficiency in the corn-producing municipality of Dagohoy, Bohol, Central Philippines, the Candelaria Multi-Purpose Cooperative of the locality in collaboration with the Department of Agrarian Reform have proposed corn block farming involving the Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries (ARB’s) from two Agrarian Reform Communities (ARC’s) in the area. Funding agency of the proposed project required the needed number and type of machinery and equipment for a productive and profitable corn block farming in Dagohoy, Bohol ARCs. Thus, an in depth assessment on the farm machineries and equipment needs of corn block farming in the area was done based on the characterization of its natural and physical resources, as well as the size of the potential area for corn block farming. A set of participatory rural appraisal techniques were adopted in the assessment process. After the thorough analysis of the data collected, corn block farming was found to be suitable in the proposed project site considering soil types, climatic condition, availability of water, infrastructures, and other required facilities. The project site had 724 potential hectares for corn production. However, full mechanization was not possible due to existing moderate slopes (8-18% slope) in some areas. Traditional farming methods at production stage could be integrated considering that some of the fields do not favor full mechanization and the farming methods could also provide employment for the displaced labor in some farm operations. Due to high investment requirement, pilot production among others could be started in a 30-40 hectare portion to be managed by the Candelaria Multi-Purpose Cooperative.

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  • TOMAS D. REYES, JR.
    2015 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 178-184
    Published: 2015
    Released: April 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The study combined geographic information system (GIS) and statistical models in predicting landslide hazard in Wahig-Inabanga Watershed, Bohol, Philippines. The bivariate statistical analysis (BSA) and logit regression (LR) were employed for class and factor weighting, respectively, to determine landslide prone areas using eleven significant landslide-related instability factors such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, soil order, soil type, fault line proximity, river proximity, road proximity, rainfall, and land cover. The very satisfactory results of model evaluation warranted the application of the LR model in evidence-based landslide hazard assessment. Out of the eleven instability factors, only soil order and soil type were determined not significant. The first three most important instability factors based on the values of regression coefficients were elevation, slope, and lithology. Landslide hazard assessment revealed around 7,063 ha or 11.33% of the total area of the watershed had high to very high landslide hazard ratings. The study showed that GIS, in tandem with useful models, provided pertinent results which could be used as scientific basis for watershed management and land use planning in relation to landslide disaster risk reduction and management.

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