With the goal of discovering a more effective method of implementing a language placement test conducted in “Introduction to Japanese Literacy,” a first-year course offered at the participating school, the authors examined how test time and question order impacted answer rate and correct answer rate using test results from approximately 1,900 students. Based on the results of previous studies conducted by the authors, it was suggested that test time and question order for the subject being examined could have an effect on test results. Accordingly, subjects were divided into a total of four groups comprised of two groups with test times of twenty minutes and thirty minutes, respectively, and two groups for whom questions were set in the “proper” order and in the reverse order, respectively, after which the answer rates and correct answer rates for each group were analyzed. As a result, it became clear that it was appropriate to allow a test time of thirty minutes with questions given in the proper.
The objective of this study was to obtain suggestions on the ideal form of developmental education used for training occupational therapists from interviews with students. The author conducted a focus group interview with students of the occupational therapist training school on “good and bad things they found about pre-entrance education tasks and how to reform the same” and analyzed their opinions through a qualitative research method. From the analysis of the students’ interviews, the author obtained the following elements for the developmental education program: (1) Re-habituation of the learning attitude; (2) Consideration of the timing and the difficulty of the tasks; (3) Guidance on natural sciences; (4) Teaching the relevance of specialized subjects; (5) Giving specific examples for the national examination questions and the subjects taught; (6) Giving specific examples of diseases/disorders and teaching the corresponding medical/technical terms; (7) Teaching the discipline as a profession; and (8) Highlighting the significance of occupational therapies/activities. The author believes that incorporating these elements is essential to create a program that makes use of the students’ desire to learn “specializations.”
The present study examines EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners’ word search behavior when using paper-based dictionaries (PD) and web-based smartphone dictionaries (WSD). The participants were Japanese university students of English, and the main objective was to ascertain how the type of dictionary used and the level of English proficiency affected word search behavior when seeking to understand an English sentence. An English word search task, in which the participants (PD and WSD groups) were asked to choose the appropriate meaning of target words in simple sentences, was developed. The results showed that, while high proficiency groups achieved higher scores than low proficiency groups, no difference was found in performance between PD and WSD. It was also found that the low proficiency group using WSD was inclined to make mistakes in part-of-speech selection rather than meaning selection. This tendency indicates that low proficiency learners tend to choose the first meaning listed in the dictionary. It is thus suggested that educators should instruct students not only to consider all the meanings provided in a dictionary but also bring their attention to the part-of-speech of a target word in a sentence.
Through the practice of reading aloud using chants, the author reconsidered the use of phonological instruction in English developmental education. A survey was conducted involving the following steps: pre-test, reading practice with chants, and post-test. The participants were first- and second-year university students with a TOEIC average of approximately 250 to 300; all were non-English majors. They were separated into two groups, A and B. Group A practiced 8 times and group B did so 15 times. English native speakers evaluated pronunciation, and the practice effect was partly confirmed in group B. The author also confirmed through a questionnaire and observations that the rhythm and music of the chants had a positive emotional effect on learners. Generally, the practice of reading aloud tends to result in immediate effects, but the motivation to learn in this manner is difficult to sustain. Teachers need to continually reassess their techniques for motivating and encouraging students to practice proactively.
We designed a remedial mathematics class for university students using the bookend model and investigated emotional changes in the students. The bookend model is a lesson model in which focused discussions are held before and after the lecture, and paired discussions are held in the middle of the lecture. In this study, this model was modified to fit a remedial mathematics lesson and incorporated into daily lessons. To determine its effects, we applied a questionnaire survey on learning motivation and a scale for students’ beliefs about cooperation, and also administered a free-description survey. As a result of the intervention, positive changes were seen in all items of learning motivation. Although there was a marginal significance in the scores for students’ beliefs about cooperation, temporary positive change was seen in an individual orientation factor.