When a decision, such as the approval or denial of a bank loan, is delegated to a computer, an explanation of that decision ought to be given with it. This ethical need to explain the decisions leads to the search for a formal definition of the notion of explanation. This question meets older questions in logic regarding the explanatory nature of proof.
Recent studies in the philosophy of science have employed data science methods, which have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional case study approaches. These limitations include a lack of interest in the typicality of language uses and arbitrary case selection. The digital philosophy of science has implemented text mining and random sampling techniques. This paper aims to address methodological issues in the digital philosophy of science and argue for refining quantitative concept analysis. Specifically, we focus on the various uses of the word explain to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. By integrating methodologies from the philosophy of science and contemporary linguistics, we propose an updated approach to the digital philosophy of science.
This paper demonstrates pragmatic constraints involved in corpus linguistic studies. Both philosophers and linguists have long recognised the difficulties in characterising meaning. Despite the widely acknowledged difficulty, quantitative semantic analysis has been attempted. In this paper, how corpus linguists make pragmatic decisions is explained by introducing the degrees of specificity (i.e., is-a relation, or class inheritance) and granularity (i.e., part-whole relation, or mereological relation) in identifying and describing linguistically expressed concepts. We show that pragmatic constraints are ubiquitous in many aspects of quantitative semantic analyses.
The present research used archaeological data, i.e., the data obtained from kamekan jar burials in the Mikuni Hills of the northern Kyushu area in the Middle Yayoi period, to test the parochial altruism model. This model argued that out-group hate and in-group favor coevolved via prehistoric intergroup conflicts. If this model is accurate, such an out-group hate and in-group favor could be reflected in the archaeological remains, such as pottery making; the more frequent intergroup conflicts are and the more each group is opposed, the more independent and coherent each group will be and more evident cultural identity could be established within each group. We employed an elliptic Fourier analysis for the shapes of kamekan jar burials. We examined whether frequent intergroup conflicts in the period influenced kamekan jar pottery between subareas of the Mikuni Hills. The results suggested that the shapes of kamekan jar burials after the KIIIa type are slightly different between subareas, which is partially consistent with the model. However, the results do not support the model directly.