This special issue summarizes the main results of the first two years of the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) project, which is supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). SATREPS has provided excellent opportunities for our joint research team from Thailand and Japan to work in close coordination on challenging multidisciplinary issues.
The Area-BCM for the Enhancement of Resilience of Industrial Complexes in Thailand project was started in 2018. Its scope includes the impacts of urban flooding disasters in Bangkok and its surrounding areas where socio-economic functionalities have been concentrated, as well as chain repercussions of disaster impacts, spread through global supply chains, in important production and logistics facilities in Thailand. Our high-level project targets are based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015–2030 as well as Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially #11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), #8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), and #13 (Climate Action).
This issue contains interim research results from our project mainly led by members from Thailand with regional aspects of our project site. However, we plan to release another special issue by the end of our project that will include more generalized concepts and frameworks that can be applicable to other regions or countries, including Japan.
As we take a multidisciplinary approach that includes science and technology, life and well-being science, and social science, our main objective in featuring this special issue is to make our interim research results known to other researchers and practitioners in related fields. We do this in order to get opinions and suggestions from different perspectives so that these may be reflected in the directions our research takes during the remainder of our project term.
Finally, I am truly grateful for the authors’ insightful contributions and the referees’ acute professional suggestions, which together make this JDR special issue a valuable contribution to making our society more resilient to future disasters.
Business Continuity Management (BCM) is commonly known as one of the most effective programs to use in the face of crisis, incident, and disaster, specifically for organizations to continue or resume their operations. Over time, the concept has gained popularity and has developed into one of the strategies in a resilience plan. The purpose of this study is to explore the trend of BCM, the subject, and the relationship between BCM and associated study fields through a preliminary systematic literature review. This research used the articles from ScienceDirect database from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2018. This study analyzed the collected articles using their publication years, journal titles, countries, and relevant study fields. The result found that several papers have been published since 1999, which focus predominantly on the BCM standard. The rate of publication on BCM had escalated in 2015. There were 82 papers about BCM. The issues were categorized into ten main subjects. Among them, the most frequently mentioned are Information Technology (IT) security, followed by implementing BCM into diverse study disciplines, implementing new toolkits into BCM associated studies, BCM improvement, resilience, lessons learned, supply chain, and BCM advantages. The gap of the research lays a foundation for future studies in similar fields.
This paper aims to identify the root causes that exacerbated the economic damage from the 2011 Chao Phraya river flood disaster in central Thailand industrial complex area. Finding root causes is crucial for learning from disasters; however, there has not been much investigation of the economic damage root causes with regard to the 2011 Chao Phraya river flood disaster. This paper seeks to investigate the root causes of the economic damage by organizing the existing analytical frameworks, tools and approaches to clarify why industrial parks and estates experienced such substantial economic devastation that resonated worldwide. The study’s research design includes a social background survey, in-depth interview surveys and an investigation of the disaster’s root causes. Through the research, inadequate urban and land use planning facilitated by a decentralization policy, foreign companies settlement in the country, which involved urbanization and relocation without proper risk assessment, information, and knowledge, and supplier’s responsibility based on the supply chain’s structure, are detected as root causes for the high economic damage in the industrial complex area. This study also provides key lessons essential to building regional resilience in industrial complex areas: 1) considering the potential risks of regional planning, which include both socio-economic and climate changes; 2) clarifying the roles of companies, regions, and nations in sharing risk information with related stakeholders before, during, and after a disaster; and 3) building horizontal and vertical collaborations among all related stakeholders.
Many cities and regions have recently experienced economic and environmental losses due to natural disasters. Economic losses are particularly high in urban areas where population and many economic activities are highly concentrated. Urban communities’ abilities and capacities to cope with natural disasters are essential to understand the impacts of natural disasters. Urban communities’ coping capacity is found to be closely linked to social capital of such communities. This paper aims to assess the natural disaster coping capacity of urban residents with social capital approach. The case study is Bangkok, Thailand. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the analysis shows that social cohesion, empowerment, and trust plays a key role in social capital level of Bangkok residents. Mapping social capital index at the district level suggests that urbanization may be contributable to the level of social capital.
Floods are a regularly occurring form of natural disaster in Thailand. They commonly occur during the monsoon season. Although the Chao Phraya River basin is strategically important because it accommodates several primary sectors that form the backbone of the Thai economy, it is vulnerable to flooding. The causes of flooding in this basin are both natural and human-induced. Climate and land-use changes are believed to be factors that elevated the severity of recent flood events. In 2011, Thailand suffered the worst floods in half a century; this is ranked as among the top five costliest natural disaster events in modern history. Thailand has developed a number of structural and non-structural measures to prevent devastating flood impacts. This paper reviews the flood management and adaptation measures within the Chao Phraya River basin, serving as a stepping stone towards sustainability.
Area-Business Continuity Management (Area-BCM) is a new disaster management concept developed by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in 2013. One of the greatest challenges encountered in achieving a successful implementation of Area-BCM is the public–private partnership. Since stakeholder analysis is the key to understanding the complex relationships among all the parties involved, a variety of methods for and approaches to stakeholder analysis have been developed in several fields and with different objectives. Although studies on stakeholder analysis are attracting more attention, the number of studies on stakeholder analysis in the field of disaster management is still limited. The purpose of this study is to explore several stakeholder analysis methods applied to disaster management, particularly Area-BCM. By reviewing research articles in the ScienceDirect database from 1990 to 2018, this review article categorizes stakeholder analysis methods into three groups: (1) identifying stakeholders, (2) differentiating and categorizing stakeholders, and (3) investigating relationships among stakeholders. This study also identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (i.e., performs a SWOT analysis) of each existing method. Further, this study promotes the significance and advantages of stakeholder analysis in disaster management, especially in Area-BCM-related projects by helping researchers and practitioners to understand the existing stakeholder analysis methods and select the appropriate one.
This study aims at clarifying households’ responses to the flood in Thailand. The result of this study helps fill the gap in literature about the factor affecting a household’s decision to evacuate in response to the flood, as such a decision varies with the type of natural disaster. The result of the study confirms that more vulnerable people are less likely to evacuate. However, they are more likely to evacuate, if at least one of their household members has reduced mobility. People in flood-prone areas exhibited moral hazards. Furthermore, people with relatively secured employment statuses are more likely to stay in the flood-prone area, to minimize their losses from the flood. If households with management-level employees received real-time and accurate updates about the flood, the decision to evacuate would be freely decided by such households, which can minimize their losses. Similarly, real-time and accurate data about potential damages and losses can reduce moral hazards. Thus, it is necessary for national and local governments to understand area-specific characteristics of people and linkages between societal vulnerability and economic resilience. The study’s implications highlight the importance of developing disaster management strategies in an integrated area-based approach.
Housing in Thailand is expanding to the suburbs, especially for the lower classes, with more people living in collective housing. This study used a questionnaire survey to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic disparities in collective housing and disaster risk reduction (DRR) following the great flood of 2011. The results show that, although suburban lower-class collective housing was severely affected by the flood, DRR measures remain insufficient. The findings suggest that, in addition to supporting victims irrespective of residential status and aiding apartment managers in implementing DRR measures, lowering levels of inundation in the suburbs by “sharing” flood water with the more affluent city centers is an option that should be considered.
This study investigated households’ perceptions of risk communication during the 2011 flood in Thailand, which was the most devastating in Thailand since 1942 and affected 12.9 million people. The study aim was to analyze the determinants of people’s perceptions of early warning communication and its efficacy. It also examined key determinants in various aspects, including the accessibility and efficacy of warnings regarding the potential hazard from electrocution, household hygiene, and life and property issues. This study used the 2011 Flood Livelihood Survey of Thai households, conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office from July to December 2011. The results demonstrated that some household characteristics, head of household, and communication and transportation problems during the flood affected warnings regarding accessibility and the perception of warning efficacy during the 2011 flood in Thailand. The results also demonstrate the key factors in successful risk communication, i.e., flood experience and community interrelationship. It is also essential to provide comprehensive and useful information such as safety and health instructions, using the proper channels to disseminate information to the target audience.
This study estimates the fiscal impact of the anticipated Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquake on both the national and local Japanese governments to identify their sovereign risk. First, we estimate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on local public finance using panel data regressions on 2008–2015 fiscal data. Second, based on the anticipated damage data – seismic intensity and area of inundation – of the Nankai earthquake and the coefficients derived from the first step, we estimate the amounts of fiscal revenue and expenditures that would be required by every local government for the anticipated Nankai earthquake. Finally, we estimate the fiscal expenditure of the national government in proportion to the estimated local ones. We find that first, the estimated fiscal requirements in the two years after the earthquake are about JPY 161 trillion, 5.9 times those of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Second, the financial disparity between affected and non-affected local governments is large because the Nankai earthquake would affect more municipalities than the Great East Japan Earthquake. The fiscal burden of non-affected municipalities would be relatively higher. These findings indicate that the Nankai earthquake will not only be a local disaster but also a national catastrophe.
Colombia is tectonically active, and several large earthquakes have ruptured the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone (CESZ) during the last century. Among them, the Colombia-Ecuador earthquake in 1906 (Mw 8.4) and the Tumaco earthquake in 1979 (Mw 8.3) generated destructive tsunamis. Therefore, it is important to characterize the seismic rupture processes and their relation with interplate coupling along the CESZ. We searched for repeating earthquakes by performing waveform similarity analysis. Cross correlation (CC) values were computed between earthquake pairs with hypocenter differences of less than 50 km that were located in the northern CESZ (1°–4°N) and that occurred from June 1993 to February 2018. We used broadband and short-period seismic waveform data from the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) seismic network. A CC threshold value of 0.90 was used to identify the waveform similarity and select repeating earthquakes. We found repeating earthquakes distributed near the trench and the coast. Our estimated repeating earthquakes near the trench suggest that the interplate coupling in this region is low. This is in clear constrast to the occurrence of a large slip in the 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake along the trench in the southern part of the CESZ, and suggests that rupture modes are different between the northern and southern parts of CESZ near the trench.
In every disaster, problems of information and communication distribution always occur. The communication channel is very dependent on various supporting facilities. Electricity, transmitter towers, broadcasting stations, to human resources. In two big disasters in Indonesia in 2018: the Lombok earthquake; and the earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction in Palu, there were issues of the information and communication channels. Local people do not know the conditions that occur in their area and the situation of their families. While outsiders, the government, and rescue teams did not get detailed information from the affected areas. In countries with high intensity of natural disasters, emergency broadcasting policies have been long practiced. The simplest device for emergency broadcasting is radio. This kind of media can immediately air with simple facilities. Regardless, the initiative of emergency radio has not yet adopted into regulation in Indonesia. Therefore, the emergency radio initiator limited to a handful of organization like in Lombok earthquake. Conversely in Palu disaster, there was a Ministerial Decree of Information and Communication Ministry Number 773/2018 (KM 773), regulation that simplify access to radio frequency. Using comparative method, this research examined these two disasters to analyze the differences of emergency radio practices. Only 1.5 months away and similar location features, the emergency radios initiation differ in several aspects related subjects that regulated in this KM. The result shows that this KM can broaden all aspects of emergency broadcasting radio. Although, the KM unable to shorten the time of emergency radio implementation. Regulation change only limited to frequency access. A broader regulation change is needed to support the practice of emergency radio.