科学史研究
Online ISSN : 2435-0524
Print ISSN : 2188-7535
26 巻 , 161 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 井上 隆義
    1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 1-12
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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    August F. Horstmann is known to be the first chemist to have applied the second law of thermodynamics to chemical processes. He began to study the decomposition of substances by heat from the view-point of the kinetic theory of gases on one side (in 1868), and by the thermodynamical analogy with vaporizations on the other (in 1869). Next on th basis of the new thermodynamic formulation developed by Clausius in 1862, Horstmann promoted a better understanding with respect to the mutual relations between dissociation and thermodynamics. In 1871 he derived fundamental equations of dissociation equilibrium for substitution of watervapors with irons. A. Naumann criticized Horstmann's theory of dissociation, especially his application of a thermodynamic formula (so-called Clausius-Clapeyron's formula) to dissociation, from a standpoint of the molecular theory. Refuting Naumann's criticism, Horstmann showed that thermoclynamics and every formula deduced from it were not dependent upon any hypothesis on molecular processes, and therefore it was valid to apply thermodynamics to chemical changes Thus, in 1873 he attained a qualitatively high level of theory concerning dissociation equilibrium on the entropy maximization principle (formulated by Clausius in 1865). Then this new level of Horstmann's theory was established through his exact recognizing of the inner connection of chemical processes with the thermodynamic laws, and of the difference and the relation between microscopic processes and macroscopic ones.
  • 吉田 晴代, 高田 誠二
    1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 13-23
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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    Joseph Fourier, known as the author of Theorie analytique de la chaleur (1822), had previously tried to confirm the results of his mathematical analysis by experiment and reported some details of these experiments in his first paper on heat conduction "Theorie de la propagation de la chaleur dans les solides" (1807). Additionally, in Fourier's MSS., left are many notes on his experiments dated before 1807. They give vivid evidence not only for Fourier's experimental skill, but also for the actual modes of physical experiments in his time. The aims of Fourier's experimental research were (1)to verify his ingenious foresights deducible from the theory—ex. experiments on the steady thermal state in annulus and on heat diffusion in annulus and spheres; (2) to analyze the physical conditions which affect the exactness of the experimental results but can not be expounded by purely mathematical means—ex. experiments on heat diffusion in spheres and cubes under various thermal condions; (3) to determine such physical constants as the ratio of external conductivity to internal one—ex. experiments on the steady state in annulus (which, though unsuccessful, was the stalling point for. new method) and (4) to carry out tests indispensable for applying mathematical analysis to such practical problems as the error and response of thermometers. Fourier's researches on heat conduction, so comprehensive as to cover theoretical analysis, experimental verification and even practical application, are really distinguished among the investigations contemporary with his ones.
  • 斉藤 国治, 小沢 賢二
    1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 24-36
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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    Chun-Qiu (春秋) or the Spring and Autumn Annals is a chronicle of Luo (魯), a state of Ancient China, covering the period from 722 bc to 479 bc. It includes astronomical records such as solar eclipses, comets, planetary motions etc.. Among these data, solar eclipses, 37 in total, have been examined by many scholars to make clear the calendar of the period. Conclusion is that 33 among the above-mentioned 37 eclipses can be identified with those listed in Oppolzer's "Canon der Finsternisse", while the remaining four have been abandoned as doubtful because no eclipses can take place on the dates of the records. The present paper shows that two of the hitherto-doubted data (# 15 and # 22 of the Chun-Qiu eclipse numbers) can be turned out to be real eclipses solely by changing the year-numbers in the documents as follows. (1) In case of the # 15 eclipse, the original document says, "On a kui-mao day (癸卯) in the sixth month of the seventeenth year of Lord Xuan (宣公) ,a solar eclipse occurred" Simply change the "seventeenth" to the "seventh" in the document, then this record correspnds to Oppolzer's No. 1445 partial eclipse which was visible as much eclipsed as 0.36 in Qufu (曲阜), capital of Luo, in early morning on May 8, in 602 BC. (2) In case of the # 22 eclipse, the document says, "On the first day and geng-chen (庚辰) day in the tenth month of the 21st year of Lord Xian (襄公) a solar eclipse occurred." This hitherto-doubted record recovers its righteousness only by changing the "21 st" to the "26 th". Then the record is identified with the eclipse of Oppolzer's No. 1588 which was seen in Qufu in the evening of October 23, in 547 BC. At this time the sun set at 17:23 while being eclipsed as much as 0.26. (3) Julian days of these re-located eclipses are kui-mao and geng-chen, the same as in the originals. This cannot be a mere coincidence since probability of coincidence by chance between the sexagesimal dates is as small as 1/60. (4) The discovered misprints of dates may have been originated from any disorder of the bamboo tablets or from mistranscriptions in the later times. Anyway, addition of these two eclipses will be useful in order to study the calendar system of the Chun-Qiu Period.
  • 松尾 重樹
    1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 37-40
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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  • 1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 41-57
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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  • 1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 58-
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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  • 1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 64-
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
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  • 1987 年 26 巻 161 号 p. 65-
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2021/09/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
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