This paper reveals the dosages of decoctions in Shanghanlun(傷寒論) in relation of pills and powder formulations, and obtains following results. At the first examination of the system of weight, while Taohongjing(陶弘景) shows three kinds of system of weight: [(1) lliang(両) is equivalent to 14 g. (2) lliang = 7 g (3) lliang = 1.4 g], he describes the necessity of the corrective system of weight among the decoctions, the pills and the powder formulations. After Song(宋) dynasty. Zhusanfa(煮散法), which is the method of preparing the decoction by placing powder ingredients of prescriptions in water and simmer, have been mainly adopted. In the term of Zhusanfa, although the whole quantities of prescriptions are written with the ancient weight unit, the notation of the dosage is indicated by the current weight unit, Qian(銭). In Shanghanlun, since the dosage form seems to have been changed from the pills or the powders into the decoction, some of decoctions contain impractical dose for decoction.
Francis Bacon, known for his modern enterprise to isolate philosophy from theology, had religious motivations embedded in his "new philosophy." How was he able to balance this ostensible contradiction ? fn examining this issue, I will reconsider his definition of theology and philosophy, as well as what he considered the ominous mixture of the two. Central to this examination would be his idea of "reason" and how he thought it should be applied to philosophical and theological endeavors respectively : while reason is confined to its "secondary" or relative use in drawing theological lessons, in natural philosophy, its "primary" or absolute use is allowed to illuminate boundless realm of knowledge. I argue that he made the definition of theology and philosophy clear to achieve some religious ends : first to dissipate religious contentions of the time, secondly to criticize the widespread Paracelsian interpretation of Genesis, and lastly to establish his "new philosophy." In order to fully understand his program for the reform of learning, the often forgotten domain of theology must be taken into account. Only then does it become possible to approach the uniqueness of his "new philosophy."
Francis Bacon is generally considered as a 'modern' thinker, whose "works were all directed at replacing the philological and literal type of culture with the techno-scientih'c one"(Paolo Rossi). But does this evaluation hold for his De safiientia velcrum, where he interpreted thirty-one mythological figures and their fables in a typically humanistic manner ? This paper is an attempt to give a possible answer to this question. In his Advancement of Learning (1605), Bacon doubted that ancient fables contained "the religious, political, and philosophical secret or mystery." This scepticism, however, vanished in his De sapientia velerumc (1609), where he said that "beneath many fables of ancient poets there lay from the very beginning a mystery and an allegory." He expounded the same view in De dignitate et augumenlis scientium (1623), a treatise that put forward his definitive views on many issues. This chronological survey indicates that the attraction of the ancient fables was too strong for Bacon to refrain from giving fantastic interpretations to them. However. Bacon also tried to escape from the humanistic and allegorical way of thinking, saying that "the truth must be discovered by the light of nature, not recovered from the darkness of the past." It is this duality that defines the singular place occupied by Bacon in the history of philosophy.
This paper explores the notions of density and rarity in Francis Bacon's matter theory and demonstrates their central role in his natural philosophy in its theoretical and practical dimensions. The distinction between density and rarity derived from his fundamental perception of matter and enabled him to explain the causality of various natural phenomena. His notion of spiritus was also based on this distinction. These theoretical aspects were intimately connected to practical spheres in his project of domesticating nature, for Bacon believed density and rarity to be a major source in making useful products for mankind. This can be illustrated through the analysis of his discussions on the production of gold and the prolongation of life.
Francis Bacon was a major early modern critic of Aristotelianism. In addressing its matter theory, he mainly attacked the concept of prime matter, which, for many Aristotelians, was deprived of any attribute. He denied this doctrine on the basis of the inseparability of matter from its quantity and power. By examining theological and natural philosophical dimensions of this idea, this paper reveals the close interconnection among various fields of knowledge in Bacon's thought.
Robert Boyle (1627-91) is widely known as a leading Baconian in seventeenth-century English natural philosophy. But when and how did he familiarize himself with Francis Bacon's writings ? Which aspect of these works interested him in particular ? This paper addresses these questions by examining his citations of Bacon in chronological order. Around 1660, ten years into his scientific career, Boyle converted to Baconianism by adopting its characteristic method in natural history. Integrating various insights found in the Instauratio Magna (1620) into his own project, Boyle carefully modified Bacon's original teachings from the viewpoint of a professional experimental scientist.