In this paper, I describe how public health officers in Japan in the period of the late Taisho and early Showa eras claimed their position as professionals in the sanitary administrations of central and local governments. In the background of this push for recognition, there were related international and national movements. Internationally, public health ministries were established in developed countries and the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) was created. LNHO wanted to improve the level of public health officials world-wide, so the organization sponsored international exchanges of officials. These activities made a strong impression on Japanese public health officials, who realized that they belonged to an internationally recognized profession and that they needed to work hard to improve the substandard Japanese public health situation. Meanwhile, at the level of domestic politics, there were several movements of technical experts in different fields of government administration that worked to fight the unfair treatment of administrative officials, a situation that had existed since Meiji Period. The public health officers collaborated with the other technical experts to improve their positions and to play key roles in society. But while the other technical experts actively pursued social leadership, public health officials wanted to remain scientists. This is because the sanitary departments in the local governments were organized within police departments. In this environment, the law was dominant and science was secondary. But public health officials insisted that the basis of public health should be science, so they emphasized their scientific expertise.
In order to clarify the mutual influence between Robert Hooke and Nicolaus Steno in the history of geoscience, the present paper analyzes their collections of minerals as well as their texts about the Earth. Following a brief review of the circumstances of mineral collections and classifications in seventeenth-century England, I examine the text of Hooke's Discourse of Earthquakes (1668/1705) and the specimens that Hooke referred therein. I also note that Hooke utilized the specimens or related facts, or even fables, reported in natural histories, travel writings, classic texts, the Scriptures, letters and accounts of acquaintances, and so forth. Meanwhile, a study of the minerals referred to in Steno's Index of Natural Things and the contents of his Prodromus on Solid Bodies (1669) reveals that Hooke and Steno observed similar specimens, independently acquired, with some local differences between England (the Royal Society repository) and Italy (the Medici collection). Hooke, however, assumed that even fossil objects like ammonites or belemnites were of organic origin while Steno probably refrained from identifying such 'problematic' objects as being organic. Nevertheless, given the early interest of Steno in meteorological and terrestrial phenomena in his Chaos Manuscript (1659) and De thermis (1660), it is possible that Steno understood the significance of fossils in his early years, though Hooke's priority of publication is undeniable, given that he determined their organic origin in the early 1660s and published on them in Micrographia (1665).