The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.
In this paper, the author will make it clear that the main object of "Science Aiming to Product" published in 1941 by Jun TOSAKA (1900-45), based on historical investigation focusing on the role of 'technology' in his theory of ideology. Objects of this investigation will include some papers unrecorded in The Complete Works of Jun TOSAKA. In 1929, he put 'practice' as an important position in his theory of science and ideology, and didn't use 'experiment' or 'technology'. At first, his 'practice' meant 'politics' mainly, then that included meaning of 'experiment' and 'production' too in 1932. Since 1933, he became to put 'technology' as an important position in place of 'practice'. But he had been grasped 'experiment' as 'practice' until 1941. On the other hand, to grasp 'science' and 'technology' as 'practice' became the mainstream of the press in 1941. In that situation, he reviewed the relationship between 'science' and 'technology'. And he became to grasp 'experiment' as 'material production'. Then he could make the view of science founded on production thorough.
The Seki Teisyo (関訂書), a manuscript compiled by Seki Takakazu (関孝和) in 1686, is known to consist of 15 treatises which Seki extracted from an early Qing astronomical and astrological corpus, the Tianwen Dacheng Guankui Jiyao (天文大成管窺輯要). Containing a detailed account of the Shoushi Li (授時暦) as well as a comparative study of Chinese and Islamic calendrical systems, these treatises have drawn the attention not only of Seki but of modern historians. In this paper, I show that 14 of the 15 treatises Seki selected had been composed by a late Ming scholar, Zhou Shuxue (周述学), who discussed issues with Tang Shunzhi (唐順之). Their time predates the era in which the mathematical basis of the Shoushi Li was scrutinized and a new Chinese calendrical system was invented incorporating Western astronomical knowledge. I also mention some earlier works that Tang and Zhou could have consulted. Although Seki never knew the author of the treatises nor their background, his concern centered on themes that seem to have derived from one of those earlier works: the Liyuan (暦源).