The purpose of this paper is to examine a contradiction between non-regular employment and the public nature of public service. This approach leads not only to the examination of the social role played by non-regular workers and the position in which they are placed in society but also to the exploration of a basic direction for a “regeneration of the public nature” of public service. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the jobs engaged in by non-regular employees working in municipal governments; the actual working conditions of non-regular workers and their attitudes toward their jobs; and social relationships developed through the medium of work. This paper discusses these issues by analyzing findings of questionnaire and interview surveys, from three perspectives: 1) the attitudes of non-regular employees working for municipal governments toward employment and work, 2) their social relationships through employment and work, and 3)their communication and relationships in the workplace. The data used for the analysis and discussions of this paper include 1) the findings of a questionnaire survey conducted among officials of 42 local governments in Osaka (excluding, Osaka prefectural and municipal governments) concerning non-regular employees working in municipal governments; 2) interviews held with 12 workers using a semi-structured interview method; and 3)165 non-union members' results of a questionnaire survey conducted by the Osaka Division of the National Federation of Prefectural and Municipal Workers' Union concerning the actual status of part-time, temporary and contract workers of municipal governments. This paper basically consists of four parts. The first part focuses on the fact that non-regular workers are playing an increasingly indispensable role in the operation of municipal government, while clarifying the characteristics of non-regular employees working in municipal governments in terms of structure and actual conditions as well as shedding light on problems confronting those workers. Second, attention is focused on the fact that non-regular workers, who have been placed in complex and refracted relationships in the workplace, seek to feel pride, responsibility and fulfillment in their jobs, and that the pride, responsibility and fulfillment in work are determined by their social relationships with local citizens that develop through their public service work. Third, attempts are made to bring out two mutually contradictory characteristics found among non-regular workers, by considering why non-regular workers are indispensable for municipal governments. Finally, it is indicated that cooperation and collaboration between public service workers, including non-regular workers, and people from every walk of life is critical to innovative changes in the work of public service and the public nature of public service. This paper concludes by raising issues to be addressed in the future while referring to subjective and objective requirements for such cooperation and collaboration.