The working environment of doctors is extremely demanding, with night shifts, holiday work, and emergency calls, in addition to their usual long working hours. Further, the doctor community is a strict hierarchical one, with young doctors ordered to work weekends many times a month and assigned New Year holiday work and Christmas duty for years in succession, so they are deprived of time with family and partners, and are not even guaranteed being able to live like normal human beings. Cases of doctors disliking this current situation and resigning from hospitals are increasing and the doctor shortage is accelerating. This makes the environment of the medical front with its chronic doctor shortage even harsher, and patients also bear the brunt, with medical care refused, medical errors made, and so on. Clearly in such a working environment young doctors strongly desire “an environment in which taking leave is easy”, which enables relief of physical exhaustion and insufficient sleep. Needless to say, taking annual paid leave -“leave” which allows reduction of accumulated fatigue and timely mental and physical rest - is necessary to doctors. However, the proportion of doctors who do not take a single day of leave in a year is almost twice as high as that of average workers. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to clearly identify the factors leading to young doctors, especially those in a severe environment, not to take annual paid leave, focusing on the working environment which makes taking leave difficult, cased on a hearing survey. As a result, aside from items which could be identified in other conventional studies on annual paid leave targeting average workers, items which are peculiar to the medical community controlled by the medical office, could be identified as factors affecting young doctors not taking leave.