This paper deals with the relation of they embryo-growth, the seed-germination to the storage-condition in Ginkgo biloba. The result obtained are as follows: 1) When the seeds of Ginkgo biloba are taken in the fall (October 1st), the embryos are growing till January in the next year at room temperature, but they cannot grow at all at about 5°C. 2) All both seeds (at room temp. and about 5°C) germinate in 6 weeks, but the seeds kept at room temperature germinate more fast until 4 weeks.
For the purpose of increasing the efficiency of operation by analysing the operation method by Tosa-type pick, we studied states of use of Tosa-type pick on loading and unloading a trolley used for log transportation. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The larger d (diameter of logs) is, the smaller P (rate of use by pull method) is in the following relation: P=ad-b and as d becomes large, the various use methods gradually increase. 2. We must use the roft-hook against slender log and use jointly together the hook lever against big log. 3. We must improve on the point and the back of Tosa-type pick which has been used at present.
The authors studied the tannin of the bark of Salix kori yanagi Kimura. The results obtained are as follows; 1. According to the Procter's classification the tannin of KORIYANAGI (Salix koriyanagi Kimura) bark belongs to the catechol tannin II. 2. The results of the quantitative analysis of the air-dried materials are as follows. (The quantity of the tannin has been determined by the Löwenthal's method.) Moisture 14.230% Water soluble solid 11.881% Non-tannin 5.425% Tannin 6.456% 3. The results of the extract tests are as follows. 1) There was no wide difference in the extract quantity at different crush degrees, but the quantity showed the tendency of becoming largest when the mesh of the sieve is from 2 to 10mm. 2) The whole length of the bark from top to bottom was divided in to three parts, i. e. upper, middle and lower parts. The extract quantity was the largest in the lower part of the bark, the middle part came next and the upper part wat the smallest. 3) The extract quantity increased with the rise in temperature and it became the largest in 100—405°C. 4) In low temperature the increase in extract quantity was gradual while in high temperature almost no increase was recorded, i. e. on the whole, the time for extracting has little effect on the quality extracted.
In Japan, there are many native races of forest trees, which are customarily propagated by cuttings. They are acting the same rôle as these of the agricultural crops, but are not considered as clones. They are clone complexes, i. e. the populations consist of resembling clones. Some one says that these races formed themselves at first as clones. Then, thoughtless treatments of most foresters spoilt them and brought them into much complicated constitution as they are showing at present. This opinion, however, is very hardly acceptable, because cuttings are customarily collected in a very few number from a single tree, and forest plantation, on the other hand, requires usually large amount of planting materials. It seems to be necessary for growing up a clone, overcoming the above mentioned difficulties, that the genetic conception of clones has already been firmly established. The following explanation seems, therefore, to be more reasonable that these races have naturally become evident in the course of successive vegetative propagation, and they substantially include many resembling clones. In a population originated from seeds, each tree has a genotype different from any other tree, and genetic character can take any possible combination each other. When people start to propagate the trees by cuttings refusing the sexual means, they cannot collect cuttings from all the trees included in the population. The number of genotypes becomes, therefore, much decreased, and no more genotypes can be introduced into the population. As the vegetative generation progresses, the included genotypes become smaller and smaller in their number, number of individuals of the same genotype becomes larger and larger, till at last, foresters can easily recognize that some morphological characters are closely relating to some sylvicultural characteristics. Now it is possible to select desirable trees by means of their morphological characters. After several repeated selection, the races are established as those provided with the desirable properties and certain morphological characters. Two or more clones very closely resembling can not easily be separated in the course of the race formation. It is evident that in the sexual population there are many closely resembling genotypes. It is reasonable to suppose that some of these have been brought into the vegetative population together, when the correlation has become evident between certain morphological and sylvicultural characters. Then, these resembling clones will be all equally selected and included in the same race. These two phenomena can be clearly demonstrated on the paper using the model population (Figs. 1 & 2). It is possible, among our native races of Cryptomeria and Thujopsis, there may be some real clones. In some districts, the races have originated from the small number of seedlings or cuttings, which was introduced from the other districts. In these cases, it is highly possible that the races are real clones. We have, however, no means to ascertain it, so we must treat them also as possible clone complexes. The circumstances are quite different from the above in the case of horticultural trees. In these, it is much easier that the races have been established as the clones from the beginning. From the stand point of the racial improvement, we must immediately start to separate the most desirable genotypes out of these native races to establish real clones.
This experiment was conducted to find out how to eliminate or make innoxious the substance inhibiting rooting, which is contained in the cuttings, and to raise the rooting percentage of the cuttings. We used the saw dust of chestnut (Castanea crenata SIEB. et ZUCC.) as the material for our experiment and studied how to treat it. The findings may be summarized as follows: 1. None of the cuttings of Amorpha Fruticosa took root when they were put in the saw dust containing the substance inhibiting rooting. It came to our notice that the vessels in the cross section at the end of the cutting, 1m.m across, were clogged with a brown tannin-like substance. 2. It was found out that the saw dust contained a substance which is soluble in water, is apt to oxidise and inhibits rooting. This is considered to be a substance similar to tannic acid. 3. For eliminating the substance inhibiting rooting, the treatments in boiling water, lukewarm water, lime water, alcohol, etc. are all effective. Above all, the treatments in boiling. water and lukewarm water are considered to be most effective. The effect of the treatment in lime water is worthy of our notice. 4. It is regarded as effective in eliminating the substance inhibiting rooting to dip the end of cutting in water, warm water, lime water, alcohol, etc. and cleanse it. This treatment is considered to be effective in eliminating the substance because the substance is removed when the cross section at the end of cutting is, dipped in the processing solution.
Even if the pine heartwood has been thoroughly extracted by alcohol, aceton etc., its sulphite digestion is more or less difficult, and especially, in the case of special heartwood the delignification is very difficult. For the reason of this, we considered that a part of phenolic substances of the pine heartwood has been perhaps combined with lignin of the wood, in the natural state. The following are the results of the experiments which have been carried out to confirm such a consideration. From these results, the consideration is made sure. (1) The difference between the delignification rate of the extracted heartwood (see table 1.) and that of the extracted sapwood in the digestion by the Na2SO3 liq. (pH≅9.8) is smaller than the difference in the digestion by the kullgrenliq. (pH≅6.0). (2) The etracted heartwood which was sulphonated by Na2SO3 liq. is easily delignif icated by the cooking with acetic acid liquor with pH of 2.2, but the delignification of the extracted heartwood sulphonated by kullgren-liq. is difficult. (3) The amount of phloroglucinol which combines with the extracted heartwood is smaller than that which combines with the extracted sapwood. (4) The pinosylvin phenols can be separated by paper partition chromatography from the ether extract of the alkali soluble fraction of the extracted heartwood.