This study aimed to describe how new graduate nurses perceive empathy for patients, how empathically they act, and experience of difficulty about it. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 248 second-year clinical nurses in A Prefecture. The response rate was 30.6% (N=76). The main results were as follows, a) Empathy had a cognitive and an emotional dimension, and was categorized into three types: high cognitive and high emotional type, high cognitive but low emotional type, and low cognitive but high emotional type. b) Nurses who thought they had to behave empathically for every patient tended to think that they had to behave empathically in all situations. c) Most nurses found it difficult to deal with the patients empathically due to dual aspects involving both the nurse side and the patient side.
In 2005, we develop a care prevention exercise called "Ogenki Shan-Shan Taisou" (OSST) with the cooperation of the local government of Oita-City. The OSST was divided into 3 levels of exercise intensity, each of which consisted of 4 kinds of strength training exercise without any instruments and 3 kinds of stretching. Community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years (N = 130) participated in this study. Three-month program consisted of OSST in senior health class twice a month, health counseling, lectures on health, and group-talking. Prior to and after the period, we measured motor function and distributed the questionnaire on self-perceived physical and mental changes. As the results, more than 80% of subjects continued OSST at home almost every day, and nobody received injuries by OSST. Significant improvements were observed in body weight, isometric knee extension strength, shoulder flexibility, 10-m walking time,maximal step length, and stepping. No significant improvements were detected in relative body fat, grip strength, sit-and-reach, sway of center of pressure with standing posture, single-leg balance with eyes opened, and whole body reaction time. Moreover, most of the subjects reported desirable changes in both physical and psychological aspects. OSST is as equally effective as other exercises for care prevention in improving motor function and psychological aspects. Although further modify is required, OSST may be recommended for elderly people, due to its safety, possibility of continuation and effectiveness.