To investigate introspection among nursing students, we analyzed the content of open-end responses in a report on portfolio-based clinical training. Using a text-mining approach, we constructed co-occurrence networks followed by correspondence analysis of open-ended responses from 72 nursing students. Structural analysis of co-occurrence networks revealed that students who realized the importance of reflection became introspective and began to work toward highly efficient nursing practice. In correspondence analysis, the distribution of extracted words showed that acquired strength was located on the positive side of the first quadrant, contributing greatly to the first principal component and serving as a reference value, separating it from the top 3 areas of growth and learning. The first and fourth quadrants also contained practical application, strength, and future in a nearly straight line, suggesting their involvement in the acquisition of practical nursing skills. The findings of this study also suggest that, on reflection, students tend to consider knowledge and skills they learned as attributable to their own growth unless they give this careful consideration.
The nurse practitioner (NP) movement has been active in the United States for almost 50 years and has not been without challenges. The role of the NP is integral to the U.S. health care system. Nurse practitioners have overcome many challenges to practice and continue to move toward full scope of practice in all 50 States. To demonstrate the value and position of nurse practitioners in helping to meet the health care needs of the U.S. population, evaluation of NP practice or measuring NP outcomes is mandatory. In this paper, the speaker discusses the status of NP activities in the United States in the areas of practice and research, which are linked to NP education.
The period of education for Korean advanced practice nurse (APN) is over two years, and nurses with at least 3 years' field experience in the corresponding area within the last 10 years are qualified to be admitted to the course. Regardless of area, the students are required to earn 13 credits of common subjects, 10 or more of major theoretical subjects, and 10 or more of major practicums, and a total of 33 credits or more. Common subjects include nursing theory, nursing research with biostatistics, role and policy, advanced assessment, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. Practices in the APN courses are operated mainly by APNs, physicians, nursing professors, etc., but specialists from different job categories may participate depending on the contents of practice. The contents of practice are linked to lectures, and the main goal of practice and lecture is to raise APNs equipped with capabilities in addition to competency. It has been proved that the APN is critical for the improvement of patient safety and for cost-effectiveness of healthcare. Adequate training programs are important to expand APNs' role and employment. The clinical practicum is one of the key points to make APNs qualified properly to practice in clinical settings. Many efforts and strategies are needed continuously until APNs settle down and practice adequately in Korea.