JOURNAL OF THE JAPAN WELDING SOCIETY
Online ISSN : 1883-7204
Print ISSN : 0021-4787
ISSN-L : 0021-4787
Volume 29 , Issue 2
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 84-90
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: December 10, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 91-97
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: June 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • A. Kambayashi
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 98-101
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: December 10, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study is concerning of the directionality of heavy mild steel steel plates. Micro tension test pieces were used in this test. The test pieces were taken from the three directions, i.e. the direction in which steel plates were rolled (lengthwise), their rectangular direction (crosswise), and the direction of the perpendicular to the plate surface (T direction). The steel plates used in this test were all killed steel. Some steel plates used in this test were applied controlled treatment, but some were not. The range of the thickness of the plates is 30-65mm.
    The results of the test is follows.
    (1) The yield point lowers in order-lengthwise, crosswise, and T direction.
    (2) The tensile strength also drops in order-lengthwise, crosswise, and T direction. The difference of the tensile strength between lengthwise and crosswise is under 1kg/mm2 and that between lengthwise and T direction is 1-6kg/mm2.
    (3) Concerning the percentage elongation, lengthwise is the highest. The percentage elongation of the crosswise is 0-3% lower than the lengthwise. The percentage elongation of the T direction drops as the reduction ratio raise. When the reduction ratio raise to the amount of 16, the percentage elongation of the T direction lower to 10%.
    (4) Concerning the reduction of area, lengthwise is the highest. The reduction of area of crosswise is about 5-10% lower than lengthwise. The reduction of area of the T direction drops hastily as the reduction ratio grows. When the reduction ratio grows to the amount of 16, the reduction of area of the T direction drops to about 20%. The Ductility of the T direction is remarkably low of the steel plates that were applied controlled treatment than those that were not.
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  • H. Sakaki
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 102-105
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: June 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sulphur exerts detrimental effects upon mechanical properties of steel, if presents in large amounts. Attempts have been made to establish quantitative effects of sulphur on the notch toughness of basic weld metals.
    In lime-fluorides electrodes increasing amounts of ferro-sulphur were added to flux constituents to obtain desired analysis.
    As results of experiments sulphur continuously increases transition temperature at a rate of 7°C per 0.01%. At the same time sulphur lowers maximum energy and widens transition range.
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  • K. Kato
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 106-110
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: December 10, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the 1st and 2nd reports, the authors analyzed chemically the non-metallic inclusions in weld metals and observed these shapes under optical and electron microscope. From these experiments, authors confirmed the mechanisum of the formation process of inclusion particles in molten weld metal.
    In this report, inclusions were separated as residue from alcoholic iodine solution and analyzed these crystal formes using x-ray diffractometer. In the previous report, inclusions were analyzed using electron diffraction method but identification was difficult. The results of x-ray diffraction supplied the previous results and confirmed the relation between crystal forms, chemical compositions of inclusions and chemical compositions of weld metals.
    Inclusions in weld metals were consist of the majority of amorphous and a part of crystal structure. 2MnO⋅SiO2 was found in ilmenite type A, MnO-SiO2 and 2MnO⋅SiO2 was found in ilmenite type B and SiO2 was found in low hydrogen type.
    The chemical compositions of weld metals were as follows : ilmenite type A was Si poor, low hydrogen type was Si rich and ilmenite type B was most popular compositions of Mn and Si in weld metal. The chemical compositions of inclusions in all these weld metals were consist of MnO and SiO2 but SiO2 contents in these inclusions were varied as follows : 33% in ilmenite type A, 46% in ilmenite type B and 49% in low hydrogen type. From these results and phase diagram of MnO-SiO2 system or [O]-[Mn]-[Si] in molten steel (by Kdrber and Oelsen), the shapes of inclusion particles and the crystal forms of inclusions in weld metals could be estimated. These estimations were supported with the results of the experiments in this and previous reports.
    Second experiment in this report, inclusions were separated and analyzed using x-ray diffractometer in the heat treated weld metals at 900°C and 1400°C. The crystal forms of inclusions in these weld metals were changed by means of heat treatments as follows : In the weld metals heated at higher temperature than the melting point of inclusions, inclusions were changed amorphous structure. On the other hand, in the weld metals heated at lower temperature than the melting point of inclusions, the crystal parts of inclusions were increased than the as-welded state.
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  • F. Oshiba, K. Shimizu
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 111-118
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: June 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of intensity of welding current on the max. arc length in the metallic arc welding with a.c. was studied and following results were obtained.
    (1) For a given setting angle of electrode against the steel plate the max. arc length increases almost proportionally with the intensity of welding current and attains a greatest value at a certain intensity of current, while it decreases thereafter as the intensity of current increases.
    (2) The change in magnitude of the max. arc length with intensity of current as described above occurs in a similar way for all setting angles of electrode, but the rate of change becomes more conspicuous as the setting angle increases.
    (3) For all kinds of electrodes the change in magnitude of the max. arc length with the intensity of current occurs in a similar way.
    (4) The arc angle decreases almost linearly as the intensity of current increases.
    (5) At a constant intensity of current the max. arc length is given by the following formula.
    L(θ) = (A+Bsinθ+Csin2θ)L(π/2)
    (6) At a constant intensity of current the vertical distance of the tip of electrode from the steel plate just when the arc attains its max. length is given by the following formula.
    H(θ)={a+bsin(θ-50°) +c sin2(θ-50°)}H(π/2)
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  • T. Yoshida, N. Nomura
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 119-121
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: June 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the previous paper the authors had shown that the brazed joint strength depended on the clearance of joint.
    In this report the authors clarified that the difference in the effect of the joint clearance between tension and bending test was due to the stress distribution in the brazed joint.
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  • T. Kawasaki
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 122-127
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: December 10, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This report is researched for the microstructure of joints, which are prepared by the soaking of the copper rods in the bath of molten tin, tin-lead alloy of eutectic composition and in tin powder with flux.
    1) The eutectoid temperature of Cu31Sn8 (δ) is 330°C-380°C It is recognized that δ is not formed at the Cu-Sn interface at the above temperature interval even for 30hr-70hr, but Cu3Sn is formed and contacts with Cu. But at 400°C δ contacts with Cu.
    2) When Cu-Sn is heated for very short time at 50°C-100°C above the melting point of Sn, Cu3 So and Cu6Sn5 are always formed and Cu3Sn contacts with Cu, Cu6Sn5 contacts with Cu3Sn. Therfore it is thought that these compounds have the important influence on soldering of copper by soft solder and play on important part. Up to now it has been thought that these compounds are not recognized when soldering time is very short.
    The microstructure of vertical section alone of solder joins have been studied, but the microstructure of the inclined plane of joins have been not observed, therefore these compounds have been passed over, because there very thin.
    3) The microstructure and microhardness of these compounds by the diffusion are same with those of the Cu31Sn8, Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 phase by melting. The Vickers microhardness of Cu31Sn8, Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 are about 590, 530 and 460.
    4) Between copper and solid tin are formed these compands Cu3Sn, Cu6Sn5 by diffusion below melting temperature of tin.
    5) The free energy of activation calculated from the deposition of tin on copper and brass with flux are 12970cal/g. atom and 12930ca1/g.atom.
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  • I. Ueda, H. Shinotani
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 128-132
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: December 10, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Acetylene always contains, more or less hydrogen sulphide, phosphine when produced from a generator.
    It is obvious that the employment of non-purified gas in welding presents many faults.
    Granjon, Booer, and Leeds employed ferric chloride to fix impurities. Acetylene in contact with a reactive material containing ferric chloride and ferric oxide removes hydrogen sulphide, phosphine.
    This reactive materials (powdered purifying materials) which can be repeated until the product has become inactive, have been used widely.
    But, the velocity of the gas passed through a purifier is retarded by wet acetylene and purifying power will become less, therefore it is essential to throughly remove the moisture prior to pass.
    Liquid purifiers have had to be abanded nearly because their power is relatively weak.
    Nevertheless, we know that liquid purifier is more convenient and gas is bubbled through a solution.
    So that, it is necessary to find a superior liquid purifier.
    This report has two main objects : to clear the purifying power of ferric chloride and cupric chloride which used principally for powdered purifier, and to determine the effect of stannic chloride on these solutions.
    Laboratory equipment employed for removal of impurities from acetylene consists in passing bubbles and verification of gas purified.
    At a bottom of cylindrical vessel, the bubbles are made to pass through a nozzle into a solution.
    Verification of gas purified is done by Kitagawa's phosphine detecting tube.
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  • K. Suitsu, T. Yasuda
    1960 Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 133-139
    Published: February 25, 1960
    Released: June 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As an important criterion for evaluating the tip performance, the authors empolyed, in addition to the drag, the cutting efficiency of oxygen expressed as square millimeter of cut area per liter of oxygen. In cutting study, for the sake of reproducible results, the cut area was calculated as the product of cutting speed by maximum cut thickness. The maximum cut thickness was defined as the thickness, beyond which the cutting action can not progress toward the direction of bottom in a wedge-shaped specimen under the referring cutting conditions.
    In this first report, the cutting efficiency of some available tips was investigated by using such specimens as mentioned above, and the important findings may be summarized as follows :
    (1) With increasing tip distance the cutting efficiency is slightly decreased.
    (2) By oxygen pressure the cutting efficiency is greatly influenced, and at some specific pressure, which is peculiar to the type of tip, the highest efficiency can be obtained.
    (3) The amount of acetylene flow for preheating has no significant effect on the cutting efficiency.
    (4) The relationship among the efficiency, tip size and cutting speed, at the most favorable tip distance and oxygen pressure, was clarified by the experimental formulas obtained by the authors.
    (5) From these experimental formulas it was. also revealed that, in ordinary cutting, at the speed in excess of 1200 mm/min the cutting action can not progress toward the direction of cutting in the plate, and that divergent nozzle tips have 15% higher cutting efficiency in comparison with simple nozzle tips.
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