The effect of nozzle orifice design on combustion characteristics under multi pulse ultra high pressure injection and PPC conditions. The objective of offset orifice nozzle is to shorten spray penetration and improve mixture formation in order to increase thermal efficiency. The offset orifice nozzle was designed by shift orifice aliment from into the sac center to edge of sac follow swirl direction. The experiments were carried out on a single cylinder engine at 0.55MPa gross IMEP at 1,750 RPM and 0.7MPa gross IMEP at 2,000 RPM. The injection pulses were 3 pulses equally mass under injection pressure up to 350MPa.
Accurate and incipient fault detection of air conditioning systems is highly demanded in a car to prevent energy waste and high maintenance cost. However, most fault detection techniques require experiences of drivers which are usually unavailable. In this study, a novel hybrid method is proposed to detect faults for AC systems in car. Two typical faults in AC system are adopted to investigate. An AC fault detection and diagnosis framework is introduced by combining the RBFNN model and the EWMA. The results show that the proposing algorithm detects typical air conditioning faults in a car with high accuracy.