THOR-NT prototype lower abdomen including Abdominal Pressure Twin Sensors was evaluated in 40 kph sled tests. In baseline tests, the dummy was seated according to UMTRI procedure in the front passenger seat of a mass production car. Three other derived test conditions used either a slouched seat back angle or two different knee bolster thicknesses. A pressure peak of 1 bar was recorded when the lap belt was correctly positioned on the pelvis bones whereas up to 3.7 bars were recorded in slouched seat back for the lap belt on the abdomen. Overall, the prototype could discriminate restraint conditions.
A new diesel particulate filter (DPF) with a highly porous membrane made of alumina submicron particles, which are aggregates of alumina nanoparticles, was proposed to eliminate the radical increase in pressure drop caused by the soot accumulation in surface pores at the beginning of soot trapping and to improve the initial filtration efficiency of the DPF. The alumina membrane was manufactured by introducing particles-suspended nitrogen gas into the conventional DPF. The particle size of alumina and the particle-carrying gas velocity, which are significant parameters to determine the permeability of the layer, were optimized to make a low pressure drop membrane.
Attending to cultural diversity is important for products and technology intended for global placement, such as automobiles, yet many products (and associated interfaces) lack genuine cultural differentiation. For example, in-vehicle navigation systems are typically identical in form and function across world markets, differing only in the local language and map database. To capture and explore culturally-salient design factors, we utilised a scenario-based design methodology, involving 6 experienced drivers from the UK and Malaysia. Participants were asked to portray their ideal navigation system interface designs – by drawing pictograms and devising accompanying spoken messages – to direct drivers along 3 prescribed routes in the UK, Malaysia and Japan. Routes were presented using video and paper maps, with the order of presentation counterbalanced between groups; participants were not told in advance from which country each route was derived. Proposed designs highlight differences at a country level, which are consequently interpreted from a cultural perspective. For example, Malaysian drivers included a higher density of navigational elements in their designs, particularly in their home environment, compared to UK drivers. Malaysian drivers also created more incremental designs, particularly on the approach to a manoeuvre, suggesting a desire for greater navigational support at this point in the journey. Landmarks were consistently incorporated in designs, but differences were noted in cultural salience. Additionally, the phrasing of instructions (e.g. “go straight on”), nomenclature for road elements (e.g. ‘roundabout’) and distance declaration conventions (e.g. units) differed at a country level. The findings can be used to inform the design of culturally-attuned in-vehicle navigation systems.
In this paper, it is demonstrated that the proposed robust path following controller enhances maneuverability and stability of small electric vehicles (EVs) equipped with in-wheel motors through the JSAE-SICE benchmark problem No. 3. In order to achieve high maneuverability, maximum tire force is explicitly considered using octagonal approximation. Verifications are conducted using full vehicle model so that the practical vehicle performance is evaluated. In addition to evaluate the total vehicle performance, we apply the controller to all benchmark scenarios and show its maneuverability and stability of small EV are enhanced.
Zero-dimensional knock simulations have been performed by using the model proposed by Noda et al. [SAE technical paper 2004-01-0618] implemented in CHEMKIN-PRO software. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for fivecomponent gasoline surrogate was used with composition corresponding to JIS 2nd-grade gasoline (RON=90.8 and MON=82.9). An interesting effect of the cool flames appearing before the compression by flame propagation on the knocking was observed, which was suggested to play a key role in the recent development of SI engines. Present study implies that the modeling with kinetic mechanisms can be a powerful tool for technology breakthrough of next generation combustion engines.
The effect of microwave enhanced plasma (MW Plasma) on ignition delay of diesel spray combustion was investigated inside a constant volume high pressure chamber. A microwave-enhanced plasma system, in which plasma discharge generated by a spark plug was amplified using microwave pulses, was used to introduce plasma to the injected spray before the occurrence of auto-ignition. High speed imaging of natural luminosity indicated an earlier appearance of flame in the with-plasma cases compared to the respective without-plasma conventional operation. These results corresponds well to the behavior of the heat-release rates, suggesting a reduction-effect by MW plasma on the ignition delay of diesel combustion.
The degradation-thermal coupled simulations of Li-ion battery module have been performed assuming running condition of automotive vehicle. Discharge/charge simulation was based on Single Particle model (SP model), which consists of electrochemical, mass transfer and heat transfer equations. In this study, “Multifactorial degradation model” that we have recently developed was adopted in order to estimate resistance increase and capacity fade with cycle. The model includes side reactions such as growth of passive SEI (Solid Electrolyte Interface), structure transition of positive electrode and detachment between active particles. Each parameter to perform calculation was determined for test battery, composed of typical NCM (LiNixMnyCozO2)-graphite system. As a result, SEI thickness of each battery cell grew with current cycle and the variance increased under typical US-06 mode.