A sensor that is capable of directly measuring tire torque has been developed to improve vehicle control. The sensing element is installed between the brake rotor and wheel, where both the drive torque and breaking torque can be measured. The easy detachment of the sensor from the brake rotor and wheel was achieved using a screw joint. The beams on the sensing element are set in parallel with the wheel’s axis of rotation and the bending strain of the beams is measured and converted to torque. The measured torque data is transmitted wirelessly. A measurement accuracy of ±5% was confirmed on during the actual running of the vehicle, and the appropriate torque change was measured according to the acceleration and braking of the vehicle.
This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on two heat exchangers with different thicknesses, 19mm and 52mm. The experiments were performed for five airflow rates and five coolant flow rates, where the inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. The test set-up is defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger. The investigation showed that the more inclined heat exchangers resulted in lower static pressure drops and at the same time achieved higher heat transfer rates, for a specific mass airflow rate.
Object of this study is to realize improving thermal efficiency and emission reduction with low temperature
combustion. EGR is a solution to low temperature combustion, however it occurs burning velocity decrease. To prevent this phenomenon, Dedicated EGR was adjusted to SI engine run by natural gas. The entire exhaust gas of a single cylinder operated by the equivalence ratio varied from lean to rich was recirculated to the other cylinders. Due to H2 and CO included in EGR, slowed burning velocity problem was overcome with increasing degree of constant volume, thus thermal efficiency could be improved.
On the road a passenger car's ride height is elevated both by the radial expansion of the tires due to centrifugal forces and aerodynamic lift. Wheel size and design influence these forces and therefore may affect aerodynamic drag more than predicted using fixed-ride-height tools. In this study, on-road ride height and surface pressure measurements for different wheel designs on a BMW 3 Series sedan are compared to wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations. Compared to still conditions, the vehicle is elevated by 5 to 7 mm when driving at 140 kph. This ride height change increases drag by 4 counts in the wind tunnel. However, the drag differences between the specific wheel designs are only altered marginally. Using CFD, areas sensitive to wheel designs are identified and analyzed. Furthermore, lift differences between the wheels are explained by the
wehicle’s pressure distribution.
The phenomena of soot trapping and oxidation in a hexagonal cell geometry DPF made of aluminum titanium oxide were investigated through microscopic visualization experiment and a simple analysis based on Darcy’s law through the wall and the deposited soot layer. There were two types of flow: one was a flow through a wall between inlet and outlet channels (inlet/outlet wall flow), and the other was a flow which was introduced into a wall between inlet and inlet channels, and was turned toward the direction parallel to the wall, and finally exited into the outlet channel (bypass flow). The flow rate of the bypass flow was increased with a thickness of soot layer deposited on the inlet/outlet wall. As a result, the soot was trapped even on the inlet/inlet wall surface. In the regeneration process, depending on the flow rate of the bypass flow, the maximum temperature for the hexagonal cell DPF became lower compared with that for the conventional DPF.