In this paper, we will present a novel positioning algorithm of ground receivers in urban area.
Currently, position estimation algorithms using four GPS satellites are most popular. However, because of the influence of signals shaded by buildings and multipath, measurement error becomes large. For accurate estimation, we discuss the position estimation method which doesn’t depend on the GPS satellites too much. Our approach is to reduce the necessary number of the satellites. Moreover, our method can apply to Quasi-Zenith Satellite Systems effectively. In this paper, we introduce our proposal which can estimate by only one satellite and performance by computer simulations.
Latest trends in waste heat recovery include systems like Thermo Electric Generation (TEG), Rankine cycle, and active warm up systems. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are critically discussed and compared with a novel and effective oil heating system that can deliver between 7% and 12% reductions of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. The comparison includes the expected CO2 and fuel saving potential related to the legal drive cycle as well as real world driving, effects on regulated exhaust emissions, utilisation of resources, maintenance and service, vehicle performance, comfort, noise, and durability.
This paper documents restraint and support surface interaction recorded for eight 50th percentile post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in 40 km/h, 14 g frontal sled tests. Three-point restraint belt loads and inertially compensated loads and moments for rigid seat, knee bolster, and footrest are reported. This information will facilitate computational modeling of PMHS response and assist in efforts to evaluate the biofidelity of frontal crash dummies.
A linear engine type with piston assembly that swings between two oppositely placed combustion chambers considered in this study. The study investigated the effect of injection timing on starting of the engine. The injection position varied at five different positions (17mm to 27mm) before the maximum switching limit of the engine reached. It was observed that advancing the injection position in free-piston engine slows down the compression stroke and increases the combustion duration. Furthermore, lower peak pressure and rate of heat release occurred at 17 mm, 20 mm, and 23 mm injection timing. Relatively stable operation of the engine was achieved at 25 mm.