The study of bone augmentation has been a challenge in bioengineering and tissue engineering because the restoration of bone defects is an important facet of dental implants. Studies have been conducted on stimulating osteogenesis using composites of collagen or gelatin with hydroxyapatite, β-TCP or CO3 apatite; however, few studies have investigated the use of calcium carbonate. This study investigated the use of calcium carbonate from scallop shells (CCSS) in composite with salmon atelocollagen (SAC) from salmon skin as a bone augmentation material. Both materials are underutilized resources in Hokkaido.
Bovine collagen and SAC were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to compare their structural features. A composite of SAC and CCSS (1.4 mL SAC plus 0.014 g CCSS) was prepared by freeze-drying overnight. A control of 1.4 mL SAC only was also prepared. The SAC control and the SAC/CCSS composite were implanted in the parietal bones of four-week-old male Wistar rats. Two weeks later, the parietal bones were removed, demineralized and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Azan-Mallory stains.
The structure of the SAC was observed to be similar to that of bovine collagen, but with fibers that were more porous than the bovine fibers. Histological staining of the tissue samples revealed that a substance like new bone had formed on the SAC/CCSS samples, but not on the SAC control samples. However, thickened periosteum was observed both in the experimental group and the SAC control group.
The results of this study suggest that a new bone-like formation will be created if a space is maintained for bone formation. In addition, the use of these novel materials may contribute to industrial recycling.
It is clear that sufficient osseointegration markedly influences the prognosis of implant therapy. One problem that is yet to be resolved is the development of a therapy to promote rapid and reliable implant osseointegration. However, there have been few reports investigating the cell biological mechanisms of implant osseointegration. Recently, several experiments demonstrated that carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation as well as mechanical force could stimulate bone regeneration. Given that laser irradiation can induce bone formation, it has been postulated that CO2 laser irradiation may be applicable to implant therapy in order to promote rapid and reliable osseointegration. This study examined the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on implant osseointegration. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent titanium implant insertion at the proximal tibiae and then 24 hours after the implant placement, and CO2 laser irradiation (0.5 W, 60 sec, 30 J) was performed at region of the left tibiae where the implants were inserted (laser group), while implants inserted in the right tibiae did not receive laser irradiation and served as the control group. Two weeks after the surgery, removal torque values of the laser group were significantly higher than those of the control group, but the values in both groups were equivalent 1 and 4 weeks after surgery. Sections of tibiae obtained 2 weeks after surgery showed that large amounts of bone tissue had formed around the implants in the bone marrow region in the laser group, whereas small amounts of bone tissue could be seen in sections from the control group. Interestingly, osteocytes in the bone tissue formed around the implants in the laser group showed a remarkably decreased immunohistochemical reaction for sclerostin as compared with osteocytes in the control group. Mineral appositional rate on bone histomorphometric examination using calcein labeling demonstrated much higher values in bone tissues formed around the implants in the laser group than those in the control group 2 weeks after surgery. These results indicate that bone formation around the implants was stimulated and maturation was accelerated by CO2 laser irradiation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that CO2 laser irradiation could be useful for implant therapy.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of dental rinses and dental pastes on titanium-surface properties. Titanium discs were totally covered with commercially available dental rinses or pastes, then the specimens were incubated for two or ten days, respectively. The alterations of color stability and surface roughness before and after the incubation with the dental rinses and pastes were analyzed by a color-difference meter and surface roughness meter, respectively. In addition, the mRNA expressions of CCL2 in human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFB) were investigated when the cells were cultured on the surface of the titanium discs treated with the dental pastes. By biofilm assay using an ATP analyzer, the biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis on the surface of the titanium disc was examined. There were no significant differences in color stability or surface roughness of the titanium surfaces among all dental rinses. Similarly, dental pastes showed no significant change in color stability or surface roughness. On the other hand, sodium fluoride alone significantly increased color stability, as compared with those of dental pastes examined here ( ANOVA, p＜0.05). The titanium surface after incubation with dental pastes had no effect on the mRNA expression of CCL2 in hGFB and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. The in vitro data in the present study, taken together, suggested that dental rinses of pH: 4.1～7.4 and dental pastes with and without commercially available fluoride could be used daily by patients treated with dental implants. However, care should be taken in the case of prolonged usage since sodium fluoride might be involved in corrosion of the titanium surface.
Objectives: This study evaluated the application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) to reduce the implant healing time in rat tibiae.
Materials and Methods: Forty-two 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study. Titanium implants were inserted into the proximal tibiae of all rats. After installation, LIPUS irradiation was performed for 15 min on the left tibiae. LIPUS therapy was repeated every other day for 2 weeks, i.e., a total of 3 times for a 7-day observation group and 7 times for 28-day observation group. Animals were sacrificed and tibiae were collected 8 and 28 days after implant placement. After capturing soft X-ray images and performing a torque test, the tibiae were decalcified and 8-µm-thick sections were prepared. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Goldner stain, TRAP stain, and immunohistochemical staining with anti-SOST and PECAM antibodies.
Results: Soft-X ray images, removal torque values, and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significantly higher degree of bone formation in the LIPUS group earlier in the healing process. This phenomenon was observed continuously until 28 days. Bone maturation and angiogenesis were also promoted by LIPUS treatment.
Conclusion: LIPUS irradiation was effective in bone healing and osseointegration of titanium implants inserted into rat tibiae. LIPUS may also be suitable for use in oral implant therapy.
Many previous clinical studies have reported the successful application of dental implants for functional reconstruction of edentate and partially edentate jaws. However, few of those studies focused on the Japanese population. In fact, most of the studies that focused on the Japanese population were cross-sectional in design or excluded patients who were lost to follow-up; therefore, the findings from such studies have low reliability. Moreover, the studies focused on implant survival after the insertion of superstructures, and very few studies have separately investigated the acquisition and maintenance of osseointegration.
The purpose of the present study was to build a useful database to help patients choose the most appropriate treatment. It was a follow-up study based on existing clinical records, and covered all participants and implants. In this study, we analyzed the survival rate and clearly investigated separately the acquisition and maintenance of osseointegration.
The rate of acquisition of osseointegration was calculated by dividing the number of implants acquired by the total number of implants placed. The rate of maintenance of osseointegration was evaluated using life-table analyses, which included an intention-to-treat parameter.
The study consisted of a consecutive series of 161 women and 56 men (mean age: 60.3±9.5 years) who received osseointegrated dental implants at the Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Yata Cooperative Clinic, from January 1999 to December 2010. A total of 637 implants were placed.
About 625 implants acquired osseointegration, and functioned with superstructures; 5 of these implants failed to maintain osseointegration. Around 40 implants were lost to follow-up (rate of tracing: 93.6%). The rate of acquisition of osseointegration was 98.1%, while that of maintenance of osseointegration for 12 years was 99.1%. Thus, we conclude that follow-up surveys on the long-term prognosis of dental implants should be conducted more frequently to expand the available clinical data on this subject.