Background: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is bound to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma, and HDL has anticoagulation effects. However, the association between ApoM and biomarkers of coagulation was unclear. Therefore, we investigated relationships between ApoM and biomarkers of coagulation. Methods: Serum samples from 233 Japanese participants including with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ApoM levels were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Analysis of all 233 participants showed that ApoM levels were positively correlated with age (r= 0.284, p< 0.001), total cholesterol (TC; r= 0.477, p< 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C; r= 0.234, p< 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; r= 0.331, p< 0.001). Higher ApoM levels were correlated with shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT; r=- 0.226, p= 0.001) and prothrombin time (PT, %; r= 0.326, p< 0.001). Separate analysis of the 115 healthy controls showed that ApoM levels were positively correlated with age, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C, and higher ApoM levels were correlated with shorter PT. Conclusion: Serum levels of ApoM may influence biomarkers of coagulation.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic condition with long term psychological and behavioural implications. Self-care is the cornerstone to adapt into this condition. Sociocultural appropriate self-care practices are vital aspects in nursing care. The article reviews literature on self-care among adolescents with T1DM considering sociocultural context and to discuss existing nursing care and its current issues within the Sri Lankan context. A systematic literature survey was conducted to review empirical studies from 2000 to 2014. Electronic databases PubMed and CINAHL were utilized. Personal interviews and relevant websites were accessed to explore existing nursing care and its current issues in Sri Lanka. PubMed displayed 1,065 articles for the key words ‘nursing’ and ‘Type 1 diabetes’ while CINAHL displayed 31 articles for the same. ‘Perceptions’, ‘associated characteristics’, ‘school behaviour’ and ‘family behaviour’ were identified as main categories in the literature. The nursing oriented articles relevant to self-care’, ‘sociocultural’, ‘Sri Lanka’ and ‘Type 1 diabetes’ were insufficient in number. Scientific studies pertaining to the field need to optimized. The unavailability of specialized nurse educators for childhood diabetes is a noticeable issue. The implementation of effective nursing interventions considering Sri Lankan sociocultural context is recommended.