This paper uses Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to re-analyze the linguistic data studied in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh (1995a). Tsunoda et al. (1995a) applied cluster analyses to the word order parameters in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh’s (1995b) database and identified as the main component the word order parameter category "prepositional," thus positing a basic dichotomy between prepositional languages versus adpositionless and postpositional languages. We reanalyze the same data using MCA, together with certain clustering techniques, applied to both the languages and the linguistic parameters in Tsunoda et al.’s (1995b) database simultaneously. This approach confirms the significance of word order parameters involving adposition but suggests a reconsideration of Tsunoda et al.’s (1995a) classification. We find a dichotomy between a cluster of "head-initial" (prepositional, verb-object, and noun-genitive) parameter categories versus a cluster of “head-final” (postpositional, object-verb, and genitive-noun) parameter categories similar to those often grouped together by linguists on the basis of informal cross-linguistic observations. We also find that Noun Phrase internal word order parameters, excepting parameter governing the order of noun and genitive, cluster separately from the others.
If any differences are found in the usage rate of a word between two corpora, the common method to verify them is to conduct a chi-square test using word frequencies. However, when an assumed word is used as an observation unit, there is criticism that it does not to meet the assumption of randomness underlying the statistical test. Basically, the choice of words and their regularity depends on the author’s judgment. In comparing the usage rate of a word, texts that reflect the author’s judgement, rather than the individual words should be observed as the observation units. In this paper, we propose an analytical method using a text as the observation unit to compare the usage rate of a word between two corpora. Differences of the usage rate of a word can be explained by the differences in the text frequency distribution. Furthermore, using text frequencies to perform a chi-square test makes it possible to effectively demonstrate the degree to which the text distribution varies between two corpora based upon their effect size. In comparing the usage rate of a word, therefore, we should consider the text rather than the word as an observation unit.
In recent years, the rate of refusal to research cooperation appears to be increasing in the field of psychology. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the actual state of research cooperation by comparing journals of psychology published in 2006 and 2016 with regard to the procedures for collecting research collaborators and the rate of cooperation acceptance. The results suggest that most journals did not have a description on procedures that gathered research collaborators, and the actual condition of refusal to research cooperation was not clarified. On the basis of these considerations, the problems posed by refusal to research cooperation were examined and a method to secure research collaborators to gather as many biased data as possible was proposed.