This study examines the functional verbs of the passive voice. Functional verbs of the passive voice do not seem to have the same function, but considered to have their unique characteristics. Therefore, I try to clarify the difference in characteristics of functional verbs by investigating their descriptions in dictionaries and the corpus. I first investigate the characteristics of functional verbs by conceptual consideration, then I perform quantitative consideration based on the result. In the quantitative consideration, three following viewpoints were useful; distribution of the functional verbs from the appearance field, noun part of the functional verb, and combination of the nominative and the active subject. By the above-mentioned consideration, the difference in characteristics of functional verbs such as the passive type, the characteristic of the noun part, the writing style and the sentiment polarity became clear.
Although semantic roles of the Japanese case particle de have been studied from varied angles, relatively few studies have attempted to incorporate a quantitative approach into examination of its usage. The author, therefore, conducted a quantitative analysis of the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) and assigned twenty-four semantic role codes to seven hundred text samples taken from the corpus. Then, the author investigated (1)what kind of features each of the twenty-four semantic roles had, (2)how often each of them occurred in the attested data, (3)how they were classified, and (4)to which extent each of them deviated from the prototypical semantic role. The frequency-based investigation has proven that (1')each semantic role is embodied by a highly limited set of collocating nouns, (2')place-related semantic roles occur most often, and they are followed by measure/ situation-related semantic roles, (3')semantic roles can be classified into a core group (place, measures, reasons, state) and the others, and (4')the distances from the prototype are roughly in accordance with those suggested in the radial category model.
In this paper, we extract grammatical items using N-grams and show that grammatical items or functional expressions can be taught efficiently by extracting expressions using the word N-grams from the corpus. First, we review the literature on corpus and grammar research from the viewpoint of Japanese language education. Then, we examine the collocation expression list of Lee & Sasaki (2015) and construct a functional expression list. For the purpose of verifying the validity of these extracted functional expressions, we have compared them with the frequency data of YNU corpus. The result indicates that the numbers of intermediate-level functional expressions tend to increase as learning proficiency increases. we argue that analyzing quantitatively learner corpora enables us to grasp the whole picture of the learner language.
This manuscript aims to clarify the changes of Koji Uno’s writing styles after he suffered mental illness in 1927. In order to understand the differences in Uno’s works before and after his illness, a quantitative analysis using correspondence analysis and statistical hypothesis testing was employed. By analyzing the textual measurements, we found that his writing style after recovering from the illness is different from the previous. Both the frequency of Chinese characters and the vocabulary richness increased in the works written after the illness. These results, after further analysis, mainly consist of an increase in the use of nouns in later writings. Consequently, the overall writing style changed from spoken to written language. Furthermore, the overuse of the comma has an impact on the loss of the garrulity and fluency, which led to the changes in the style of the writings after the illness. Additionally, the work named ‘Nichiyobi’ which had been published before the disease treatment is more similar with the works written after recovering, indicating that the writing style had been changed even before the illness.
This paper analyses linguistic features of primary school textbooks for the penultimate and final grades (grades five and six) and junior high school textbooks for the first and second grades (grades one and two), in order to reveal factors affecting the so-called "primary-secondary" learning gap. We chose science textbooks and analysed their complexities from the points of view of lexical and syntactic characteristics. The analysis revealed that there is a clear gap in syntactic complexities of sentences between primary and secondary school textbooks. The analysis showed that the factors constitute the gap between primary and secondary school textbooks.