To prepare various root active promoters for expressing transgenes and prevent gene silencing caused by the repeated use of the same promoter, the expression characteristics of various root active promoters were comparatively evaluated using GUS as a reporter gene. The high-affinity potassium transporter (HKT1;1), the Shaker family potassium ion channel (SKOR), the Shaker family inward rectifying potassium channel (AKT1), the major facilitator superfamily protein (MFS1), and the senescence associated gene 14 (SAG14) promoter from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used, and for comparison, four additional constitutive or green tissue specific promoters in the expression vectors were also employed. As the Gateway cloning technology provided by Invitrogen can offer high efficiency and cloning reliability, and easy manipulation of fusion constructs in vitro, our expression vectors are based on binary (destination) vectors compatible with this cloning technique. These destination vectors are also advantageous for stable expression of the transgene, as the heat shock protein terminator is utilized. The AtHKT1;1, SKOR, AKT1, MFS1 and SAG14 promoters were all active in roots but showed slightly different tissue specificities: AtHKT1;1, SKOR, and MFS1 were dominantly active in vascular bundle tissue, while AtHKT1;1 and MFS1— but not SKOR, AKT1, and SAG14—were active in root tips. SKOR showed the strongest root-specificity, and SAG14 showed the highest activity among the five root active promoters. The activity of MFS was developmentally regulated. These destination vectors are now available to express multiple transgenes in transgenic plants, especially in roots.
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