High hydrostatic pressure treatment is a non-thermal technology used in food processing. However, the use of high pressure is not well known because of the high initial investment costs associated with high hydrostatic pressure treatment. Various studies have been conducted to identify cost-effective approaches for the application of this technology. Here we intended to develop a novel food-processing technology that regulates and controls fermentation through the application of high hydrostatic pressure. Control of fermentation does not rely on the inactivation of all microorganisms, but rather on the manipulation of the fermenting microorganisms to prevent over fermentation and the proliferation of food spoilage bacteria. This review introduces the history of high-pressure science from its establishment through the development of pressure regulated fermentation technology.
This is a review of the mangrove studies conducted in Southeast Asia as a contribution towards better forest conservation. Mangrove forests in southern Thailand have been altered by human activities. Since the 1980s, scattered zones of primary forest present at that time have been substituted by secondary forests as a result of individual and industrial use of wood for fuel, charcoal, shrimp farming, and tin mining. Unlike upland forests, mangrove forests develop massive root systems that allow them to grow under tidal condition. The tidal effects of saltwater and muddy anaerobic substrates force mangroves to allocate much of the assimilated carbon to their root system, thus creating a unique set of carbon dynamic and composition of the ecosystem. A high net ecosystem production and rich biodiversity are distinct features of mangrove forests due to the peculiar allocation pattern of biomass to the roots. Future utilization of mangrove forests for individual, industrial, and social benefits requires application of new concepts in sustainable management.
The Asiatic Vigna species consists of several grain legumes that are native to tropical regions of new world. A number of them are of considerable economic importance in many developing countries. Abiotic stresses such as high salinity and low water availability are major causes of their yield losses and significantly affect their sustainable production. Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are two of the most important grain legumes of Vigna genus grown in increasingly hostile soil, with salinity and deprived water conditions both expected to worsen in future. Both mungbean and cowpea are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive). Exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through molecular breeding and plant translational genomics, that use knowledge and genes discovered in model plants, could facilitate improving tolerance in these two crops to salinity and drought. High-throughput functional genomics tools, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics could be of immense use in investigating the molecular responses to salinity and drought in land races and wild germplasms carrying phenotypic variations for abiotic stress tolerance. Development of salt- and drought-tolerant mungbean and cowpea could play an important role in ensuring in dietary protein supply, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing ecosystem resilience, especially in developing countries of Asia. In this article, we review and discuss the current knowledge of molecular basis of salt tolerance in model plants and the extent to which they can be implemented in Asiatic grain legumes for improvement to salinity.
(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is one of the major components of the renin angiotensin (RA) system, which is involved in the regulation of blood pressure. (P)RR binds with and increases the activity of mature renin, the key regulatory enzyme of RA system, which catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin-I. (P)RR also binds to the inactive form of renin called prorenin. Receptor-bound prorenin exerts biochemical and molecular effects in either an angiotensin II-dependent or -independent manner. RA system-independent function and/or involvement of (P)RR has been well reported. Inhibition of binding and activation of renin/prorenin to (P)RR has been found to improve proteinuria in diabetic model rats. This article reviews the action of (P)RR blockers as well as its associated mechanism.