Properties of yoghurt extremely depend on the application of heat treatment to milk prior to manufacture. After heating the milk, denatured whey protein and casein makes complexes which dramatically improve the yoghurt texture such as firmness and water holding capacity etc. The formation of complexes, micelle bound or soluble whey protein/κ-casein complexes, and their localization between casein micelles and serum depends on the physical properties (heat treatment, pH, compositions) of milk. We review the formation of these complexes and their effect on the physical, rheological and microstructural properties of acid milk gels. In order to investigate the interactions of denatured whey protein-casein, the formation of covalent and non-covalent bond namely thiol/disulphide, hydrophobic and electrostatic etc. are reviewed, with the emphasis on acid gelation and final yoghurt texture. This review summarizes the different factors and interactions on the formation of the micelle bound complexes or soluble denatured whey protein/κ-casein complexes in heated milk and how these complexes affect the yoghurt properties. This information could be fundamental knowledge for developing a desirable yoghurt texture, may have potential interest for future research.
Plant genetic resources (PGR) are important for agriculture and are mainly conserved in seed and field genebanks. Cryopreservation is an in vitro conservation method, which has become an important tool for the long-term storage of PGR. Within this method, the techniques of vitrification and encapsulation/dehydration are commonly used worldwide. Recently, new cryogenic methods using cryo-plates (the V cryo-plate and D cryo-plate) have been developed. The cryo-plate methods have advantages, such as ease of handling during the procedure and high regrowth rates after cryopreservation. It is important to research genetic stability in long-term tissue-cultured plants and cryopreserved plants for successful conservation of plant germplasm. The present paper reviews current cryopreservation techniques. Thus far, studies have reported no or small differences between cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved samples under optimized conditions according to various morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses (e.g., RAPD-PCR, AFLP, and MSAP).
DNA microarray and RNA sequencing platforms enable us to simultaneously measure the expression levels of a large number of genes. These platforms serve as emerging techniques for the comprehensive understanding of gene expression and profiling and are generally used to detect genes that are differentially expressed in response to several conditions including the environment, stress, and genetic background. Therefore, these can function as tools to understand biological responses. Large-scale gene expression studies are also useful in biological experiments to confirm the assumptions of models and data uniformity. Accordingly, these approaches are imperative for ensuring the accuracy of investigations of the in vivo vital reaction. In this review, we describe the role of transcriptomics in the evaluation of physiological equality through gene expression profiles.
Global organic production has increased significantly over the past decade. However, still some questions remain about any market for organic products especially in Southeast Asian countries. Organic farmers find some problems in selling their organic products for a good price due to certification labelling. While consumer wants to buy an organic product with a reasonable price, to receive an organic label certification requires cost high which lead to high selling price. This review presents an over view of problems and challenges in marketing organic agricultural products which draws attention to two key issues: (1) labeling (organic certification) and (2) consumers preference on organic products.
Thyroid hormone acts virtually on every cell of the vertebrate body and regulates numerous cellular functions by binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. Circulating concentration of thyroid hormone is under the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from the pituitary gland. Thyroid hormone mainly secreted from the thyroid gland is thyroxine (T4), while the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor prefers binding to triiodothyronine (T3) about tenfold. Therefore, T4 must be converted to T3 mostly in extra-thyroidal tissues to exert its actions. Recently more researchers have paid attention to the fact that this conversion is carried out by members of iodothyronine deiodinases, enzymes that reside in the cellular membranes, thereby enabling cell-specific regulation of T3/T4 balance largely independent of their circulating concentrations. Three different deiodinases (D1, D2 and D3) are characterized in vertebrate species, none of which is under the control of circulating TSH. D2 catalyzes deiodination of less active T4 to produce active T3. D3 removes iodine from T3 or T4 to produce diiodothyronine (T2) or reverse T3 (rT3), respectively, both of which are inactive. On the contrary, D1 is an inefficient enzyme in that it is three orders of magnitude less efficient in catalyzing T4 compared with D2 and D3. D1 may function like a futile enzyme, since it can both activate and inactivate T4 with almost the same velocity. However, D1 catalyzes removal of iodine from rT3 much more efficiently than from T4, and hence its possible importance in recycling iodine, especially in iodine deficiency such as in certain hypothyroid patients and avian embryos in the confined eggshells. In addition, deiodinase homologs of non-vertebrate chordates such as amphioxi and ascidians characterized recently have provided useful information to gain deep insight into thyroid hormone signaling system from evolutionary aspect. This review briefly summarizes the present status of research and perspectives of studying iodothyronine deiodinases, key enzymes behind the thyroid hormone action.
Rainwater harvesting has been practiced for many years in several regions globally and is mainly used for domestic or agricultural purposes. Various studies on rainwater harvesting in dry or tropical areas of growing and developing countries for agricultural use have proved its benefits such as an increase in crop yields and facilitated a change to high-value crops. To optimize the advantages of rainwater harvesting, a design is required before it is constructed. The costs of this technology are affected by labor, materials, depreciation period, and running cost. Rainwater harvesting has been proved to be feasible, with a benefit cost ratio of up to 1.6 and internal rate return of up to 76%, although the net present value varies depending on the currency and location. Uncertainty with regard to rainwater harvesting technology still prevails and a common problem for small landholding farmers is having the finances required to begin. To address this problem, subsidies or access to loans is important.
Waste from agriculture sector is abundant in tropical countries. Many farmers in these countries have been using this waste as the main feed sources for feeding livestock. However, using these wastes as feeds for ruminant production resulted in lower animal production due to its lower protein and higher indigestible fiber contents. Various methods, including physical, chemical, biological and enzyme treatments, have been investigated to improve these feeds. Among these, biological treatment may be the most practical method for small-holder farmers, due to its lower cost. One benefit of biological treatment is the use of fermented juice of lactic acid bacteria. This treatment can improve the fermentation quality of silage. When applying fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) as silage additive, the lactic acid production and in vitro organic matter digestibility could be enhanced, and fibrous component could be reduced in crop residue silages. Utilization of agricultural by-product as ruminant feed also appears as an environmental problem. Digestion of high content of fiber in the rumen increase methane emission. Methane is now recognized as a contributor of about 40% to climate change. Adding chemicals or supplements in feeds or harnessing fermentation by microorganism result in reducing methane production. To reduce methane emission, combination of agricultural by-product and other nonstructural carbohydrates in the form of total mixed ration (TMR) is feasible.
We review briefly the coarse-root-sampling methods in forest ecosystems. The root system of an individual tree often has large bulk, and therefore it requires laborious field work for root-weight survey. Past studies have developed hand-digging, pull-out, and washing methods for sampling individual roots. Following these methods of sampling, the obtained data can be used to establish allometric relationships for root biomass. In the field, appropriate combination of root-sampling methods makes the root-survey process more practical. Here, we describe our root-sampling methods used in the experimental forest of Gifu University and present a dataset on the root weight of 17 cool-temperate-forest tree individuals belonging to 12 species. We believe that this dataset will be of use to researchers who study allometric relationships of tree roots.
The Nobel Prizes awarded in two appropriate science categories (chemistry as well as physiology or medicine) and the peace category since 1901 were studied to evaluate the plant science related research that had received recognition. We also checked the Nobel prize nomination database for the two appropriate science categories to verify the number of scientists (with research reputation on plant-based studies) who were nominated, but were unlucky in the eventual selection process. The focus of this review is research on plant materials in a wider sense (including that of photosynthetic bacteria), that received Nobel prize recognition. Until 2017, Nobel Prizes for research in plant sciences have been awarded 17 times to 20 scientists. Pioneering work on five major research themes, namely, (1) chlorophyll and photosynthesis, (2) elucidation of the structure of vitamins (carotene, thiamin, ascorbic acid and vitamin K), (3) use of radioisotopes for metabolism studies, (4) plant natural product chemistry and (5) plant genetics had received Nobel award recognition so far. For future recognition, Nobel laureates such as Melvin Calvin and Barbara McClintock had opined the worth of interdisciplinary teams with expertise in botany for trend-setting new discoveries in plant science research. We predict that pioneering studies along the line of plants that can grow in a dessert or sea, plants which can be an enriched source of fuel and hydrocarbon-like materials may have potential to be considered for a Nobel Prize for plant science research.