Dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is one of the most popular fruit products in East Asia, but its properties and consumer acceptance strongly depend on the drying process and storage conditions that are used. The quality of dried persimmon depends on its physical (color, texture) and chemical (tannin levels, sugar content, the presence of white powder on the surface) properties, which are drastically affected by the decrease in moisture content and composition changes that occur during the drying process and storage. Therefore, in the present report, the changes in the physico-chemical properties of dried persimmon that occur during the drying process and its quality degradation during storage are reviewed for providing fundamental information on the production of high-quality dried persimmon and storage management.
In physiological condition, avian sperm can be stored within the sperm storage tubules of female reproductive tract and may able to fertilize eggs up to 15 weeks. The long-term viability and fertilizing ability of sperm is reduced when avian sperm are stored in vitro conditions. The motility, viability and fertilizing ability of avian sperm depends on in vitro storage conditions. Many factors can affect in vitro sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability such as storage temperature, pH of extenders, osmolarity, sperm dilution rate, and seminal plasma. Researchers are trying to extend longevity of avian sperm during in vitro condition by applying the knowledge of in vivo sperm storage mechanism(s) and sperm biology. This paper reviews the sperm motility, viability and fertilizing ability of main poultry species stored in vitro conditions. This study will help to understand a scenario of in vitro avian sperm motility, viability and their fertilizing ability.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful approach to identify the genetic factors underlying the intraspecific phenotypic variations. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology, including next generation sequencing has enabled us to easily genotype high density genome-wide SNPs. In addition, many accessions of various plant species have been widely collected in recent years. These genetic resources have made GWAS a markedly more popular approach for investigation of natural variations occurring in various traits using large populations. In addition to genotyping technology, advances in high-throughput phenotyping technologies have enabled us to acquire variation data on a large number of accessions characterized for various traits, including not only the field traits (e.g., yield and disease resistance) but also molecular traits (e.g., gene expression level and metabolite content). Thus, it is possible to expand the range of application of GWAS and enhance the detection power of genomic association. In this review, we summarize recent GWAS of various agronomic traits at field and molecular scale, following which we highlight the integration approach involving GWAS and high-throughput phenotyping technologies including transcriptome, ionome and metabolome.