The nissaggiya pācittiya is positioned fourth in the seven types of violations classified in the Pātimokkha and is a punitive provision concerning the act of illegal possession of goods. Bhikkhu and bhikkhuṇī who committed offenses of nissaggiya pācittiya abandoned the illegally possessed goods and were required to atone in front of the other bhikkhu (in the case of the bhikkhuṇī, in front of the other bhikkhuṇī).
In this study, I discuss the rule of rain robes and point out the great diversity of interpretations particularly found in the Sarvāstivāda and Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinayas. The Sikkhāpada of this item is as follows.
By a bhikkhu [thinking], “A month of the hot weather is left,” material for a rains robe is to be sought. Having made it, it is to be worn [by him thinking], “Half a month of the hot weather is left.” Should he seek material for a rains robe [thinking], “More than a month of the hot weather is left,” and should he, having made it wear it [thinking], “More than half a month of the hot weather is left,”, there is an offence entailing expiation with forfeiture. (K. R. Norman. Pātimokkha. PTS p. 41)
On this rule, Hirakawa Akira states as follows in his Nihyaku gojikkai no kenkyū 二百五十戒の研究 II.
The Sarvāstivāda Vinaya and the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya present a peculiar interpretation on the rule of rain robes which is different from that of the Pali, Dharmaguptaka, Mahīśāsaka and Mahāsāṅghika Vinayas. The two vinayas are lacking the interpretation that a monk is prohibited to wear the rain robes more than half a month before the end of the hot weather and, instead, they give another interpretation that a monk may retain a rain robe till half a month after the end of rainy season.
It is true that such an interpretation is found in the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, but we can also see other interpretations in the Sarvāstivāda and Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinayas. Hirakawa’s statement is not sufficient to understand the actual situation around this item, and the case is much more complicated.
Contrary to Hirakawa’s statement, the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya and its supplememtary literature does not have such an interpretation. Although the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya itself does not show any information about the interpretation of the item, its commentary, the Sarvāsitvāda-Vinaya-Vibhāṣā (T 1440), presents two kinds of interpretation. One differs in the duration of retaining rain robes from the Pāli Vinaya etc. And the other, which is said to be an interpretation of Vinayadharas, interprets the regulation of the “half a month” as a special rule in an intercalary month.
On the other hand, the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya presents two kinds of interpretation, both of which are different from that of the Pali Vinaya as well as those of the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya. One appears in the Chinese version of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinayavibhaṅgha, and the other in its Tibetan version and other supplementary literature.
In all, we have five kinds of different interpretations of the rule of rain robes. In this article, I go into particulars about this situation.
Japanese young women are very interested in yukata, but they worry much about the “fabric looseness or slippage” accompanied by movement. In the present study, Ohashori+ slippage was examined to clarify the actual situation and the causes. Subjects were 9 females in their twenties. After 10 repetitions of series of movements involving bowing at standing/sitting plus standing and sitting without bowing, the magnitude of Ohashori slippage varied significantly according to the kind of movement. When bowing while standing, the more slippage occurred in subjects who had longer legs ; when bowing while seiza++ sitting, those who had greater girth and thicker hips, or whose difference between waist and lower waist girth was larger or whose difference between lower waist and hip girth was smaller, were commonly experienced more slippage. For the positions tightened Koshi-himo+++, slippages and clothing pressure were significantly less when tightened over the higher iliac crest superior border than at the waist. In addition, the magnitude of Ohashori slippage might be due to 3 other factors : height change of Koshi-himo, the gap between the yukata and the Koshi-himo. and floating lapels inside the Ohashri.
+ : a lapel folded an extra length around the waist, when a woman wears a kimono.
++ : sitting on one's lower legs.
+++ : a cord tied around the waist.
Factor analysis was used to examine the structures of “dressing behavior when wearing yukata (casual kimono) ” and “yukata preferences.” For this purpose, 309 female students were asked to answer 35 questions about their yukata dressing behavior and preference among 18 different yukata. The analysis extracted five factors for the “behavior” and seven for “preference.”
Next, a positioning map was used to visualize women's yukata two-dimensionally: “modern vs. classic” and “colorful vs. quiet color combinations.”
For a more comprehensive perspective, women were classified into five clusters based on their “preference” factor scores and the characteristics of each group's “behavior” were examined. The results indicated that women who preferred modern image yukata (64.4％) were affirmative and had high factor scores for “uplifting feeling” and “freely selectable yukata” under “behavior,” while women who preferred yukata with classic, subdued-color image (35.6％) had five low factor scores under “behavior.”
本研究では和文化体験と温泉地域の活性化を促すため, 若者・中高年層の男性250名を対象に, 『温泉宿の選択基準 (21項目)』と『温泉
『温泉宿の選択基準』は「施設 (建物・知名度)」, 「接客・雰囲気」, 「露天風呂・景観」, 「観光・交通」の4因子が得られた. 評定平均値が高い項目は「食事のおいしさ」＞「宿の雰囲気」＞「景観」＞「価格」の順でであった. この順位は若年層と中高年層で同じである.