全文: "Cognitive closure"
7件中 1-7の結果を表示しています
    2015年 58 巻 2 号 61-74
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/06/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated preferences towards abstract vs. realist and low vs. high complexity paintings in context of personality traits (measured with NEO PI-R Inventory), selected demographics and art experience (aesthetic interests, knowledge and preferences). 134 participants completed an online survey, rating attractiveness and artistic value of 48 paintings grouped on two continuum scales: abstractedness-realism and general complexity of the composition. Art experience and Openness to Experience positively (while Neuroticism and Conscientiousness negatively) correlated with high judgments of abstract and low complexity artworks. High Extraversion level was positively correlated with high ratings of abstract paintings. The findings support some and contradict other previous results, reflecting the need of application of stylistic dichotomy scales (rather than style differentiation) into future research.
  • Hirofumi OHKAWA
    Annals of Business Administrative Science
    2015年 14 巻 5 号 247-260
    発行日: 2015/10/15
    公開日: 2015/10/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Berry model, well known in cross-cultural psychology, categorizes acculturation patterns into four types based on yes–no questions regarding the retention of traditional culture and the relationship with the larger society. Business administration and various other research fields have attempted to use the model due to its simple clarity. However, doubts exist regarding (i) the feasibility of deculturation (marginalization); (ii) the validity of a label “integration,” and (iii) the mutual independence of the four cells. In fact, these doubts stem from the process of formulation of the Berry model. Berry originally categorized 24 question items used in the surveys of individuals belonging to minority populations according to the three labels of assimilation, integration, and rejection. Moreover, Berry used yes–no questions to summarize the characteristics of these labels and added a fourth label, that is, deculturation (marginalization). This format became the prototype for the Berry model.
    2010年 49 巻 238-248
    発行日: 2010/03/30
    公開日: 2012/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
        In the present review, the role of consciousness (controlled processes) in clinical and educational psychology is discussed, using the construct of mindfulness. Mindfulness is a mode of attention characterized by receptive and nonjudgmental awareness of the experience of the present moment. In clinical psychology, mindfulness has been found to reduce emotional distress by enhancing a detached stance toward difficult-to-control negative automatic thinking. In addition, detachment is supported by attentional control. Evidence from the educational field supporting a motivation-enhancing effect of mindfulness is also reviewed. Mindfulness can decouple the automatic tendency to reduce motivation and actual behavior. It enables people to derive satisfaction from ordinary daily life and to be empathic to other people. Future directions for empirical research, especially intervention studies, are discussed.
  • 角野 充奈, 浦 光博
    2008年 47 巻 2 号 105-117
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    人々には,他者の言動に対応した属性を推論する傾向があり(対応推論),その傾向は,他者の言動が社会的に拘束されていると知っていても生じることが明らかにされている(対応バイアス)。対応バイアスは,容易には消失しないことから,非常に強固な現象であると捉えられているが,それゆえに,対応バイアスやその基礎となる対応推論を促進・抑制させる要因について検討した研究も存在する。本研究では,日本語における一人称代名詞「私」が明示,もしくは,省略された文章が,対応推論に及ぼす効果について,2つの研究で検討を行なった。研究1では,Jones & Harris(1967)の態度帰属の実験方法を踏襲し,書き手が立場を選択できない状況で書いた,日本語の一人称代名詞が明示された文章を読んだ場合に,省略された文章を読んだ場合よりも,対応推論が促進されることが示唆された。研究2では,日本語の一人称代名詞の有無に加え,書き手の真の態度を正確に判断するよう実験参加者に教示するか否かを状況操作して検討を行なった。その結果,正確な判断をするよう教示されずに一人称代名詞のある文章を読んだ場合に,最も対応推論が促進されることが示唆された。文化的背景に基づく要因と対応バイアスや対応推論との関連性,および,今後の研究の課題について考察した。
  • Mediha SAHIN, Marius RIETDIJK, Peter NIJKAMP
    2007年 37 巻 2 号 535-552
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The socio-economic position of migrant groups in a globally mobile society has extensively been studied in recent years, from the perspective of their skills, language abilities, adjustment behaviour, and so forth. The present study investigates the social and economic performance of migrant workers in cities characterized by cultural diversity among various migrant groups. The question will be addressed whether these groups have a higher or lower performance on the labour market than their indigenous equals, seen from the perspective of the customers' perception and satisfaction in services. This issue calls for a careful and critical assessment, as it may also rest on an unjustified stigma. It is an intriguing research question whether migrant workers, e.g., in the service sector, are actually less client-friendly than others. How does the external world (e.g., customers) judge their societal attitude and performance ? After an extensive literature review of cultural diversity theory (in particular, organizational citizenship behaviour) and motivational theory stemming from the field of business economics, we formulate relevant hypotheses on the actual behaviour of migrant employees as seen through the eyes of systematically trained, so-called ‘mystery guests'. Next, we test hypotheses on the basis of empirical fieldwork in the service sector—notably in the retail sector—in the city of Amsterdam. Our conclusion is that the sample studied here demonstrates in general, that there is no negative attitudinal or performance bias in the behaviour of these employees. It is noteworthy however, that our findings indicate a gender bias.
  • 冲永 宜司
    2005年 2005 巻 56 号 157-169,8
    発行日: 2005/04/01
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Where is the ontological location of an intrinsical quality which is felt without mediation? In this paper, we examine the possibility of regarding this quality as an intermediate and indefinable reality which cannot be subsumed under our ordinary concept of consciousness nor under material function. And we attempt this through an examination of the concept of "experience" proposed by William James. The reason why this quality has no concrete position in a materialistic framework is found in our cognitive premise which is objective from the beginning. On the other hand, as in the case of "experience", we are compelled to regard this quality as something ineffable and too near to grasp. Because this quality is neither objectiue nor subjective.
    Thus, this quality is essentially not attained without our becoming identical with it. Concerning this, some insist that the essence of subjectivity necessarily continues to slip out from external grasping or that the essence of mind is closured from our native cognitive abilities. Thus they regard this reality as something beyond objective understanding but having a certain status of its own. And this apparently contradictory peculiarity is ultimately not refutable.
    The existence of will or meaning can also be deduced from the reality of this fundamental quality. Moreover, the ground of this reality is to be found in the ontological right of subjective directness which can only be grasped from within. And this directness justi-fies itself in the fact that the cause of it is not to be sought out. On the contrary, we are to inguire the fur ther cavse of an objective reality, whenever we think we have arrived at the core of the reality. But we can avoid this difficulty by regarding reality as something not objective and in definable.
  • 鈴木 公基, 桜井 茂男
    2003年 74 巻 3 号 270-275
    発行日: 2003/08/25
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese Need for Closure Scale. In Study 1, Webster and Kruglanski's (1994) Need for Closure Scale was translated into Japanese, and administered to 240 undergraduates. Factor analysis of the Japanese version indicated that a three-factor structure was most appropriate. In Study 2, a revised scale was developed based on the result of Study 1, and administered to 577 undergraduates. Analysis of the revised Japanese Need for Closure Scale showed that it had sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the scale had a multidimensional structure. In Study 3, the scale was administered together with five relevant personality scales to 340 undergraduates, and sufficient construct validity of the scale was demonstrated.