The Journal for the Association of Art Education
Online ISSN : 2424-2497
Print ISSN : 0917-771X
ISSN-L : 0917-771X
Volume 37
Showing 1-46 articles out of 46 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2016 Volume 37 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages App1-
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages i-iv
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • Takumitsu AGATA, Yoko ITO, Miho IWATA, Shingo JINNO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 1-11
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    In recent years, there has been a significant focus on research in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The purpose of this study is to clarify the construction of sensitivity, imagination, and creativity in ESD, and consider a scale to measure it. We interviewed art and music education experts, and also conducted questionnaire surveys with undergraduates and senior high school students. From the results of the analysis, creative competency for sustainability (CCS) and its four sub-categories were identified. The scale validity was also tested. The CSS scale needs to be investigated further, but is expected to be useful for evaluation criteria of ESD practices as well as other artistic educational programs.
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  • Hiroyuki ABE
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 13-22
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study considers progress in children’s drawing and methods of teaching thereof. Based upon the ‘dinner scene’, which surveyed continuously the 6 years of elementary school in issues 35 and 36 of the Journal of Art Education, the study describes how children’s expression of space in the pictures progressed to become like that in adult pictures, whilst the children repeated, for example, eye-face blending viewed from various perspectives. To grasp the current situation, this study sent survey requests to all 203 elementary schools in Sapporo regarding textbook materials that had been used that year, and got results from 48 of the schools, approximately 24%. The survey results enabled understanding of the current state of views on teaching and artwork principles and objective statements regarding the state of teaching ‘children’s perspective’ based upon the progression of children’s drawing and new views regarding academic ability.
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  • Tetsuo ARAI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 23-37
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The aim of this paper is to explore factors that had a significant impact on art education in Japan after World War II, from the new viewpoint of the continuity and discontinuity of the Souzo Biiku Movement before and after the war. To this end, continuity and discontinuity before and after the war were examined from both the viewpoint of what was happening inside the Souzo Biiku Movement and the viewpoint of its public relationship with traditional art education. The study indicated that the following factors had a significant impact on post-war art education: (1) the existence of continuity in the Souzo Biiku Movement before and after World War II; (2) the fact that the evaluation of children’s pictures in the Souzo Biiku Movement is “competitive” rather than “educational,” demonstrating continuity with pre-war competitive judgment of children’s pictures; (3) the fact that, at the same time, discontinuity with the past judgment of children’s pictures is demonstrated by the fact that evaluation of children’s pictures in the Souzo Biiku Movement focuses on the child’s attitude and approach to the picture rather than on technical aspects; (4) the fact that the policies and style of the Souzo Biiku Movement are discontinuous with past traditional education and research; and (5) the discontinuity of the Souzo Biiku Movement with history and tradition.
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  • Yoko ARITA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 39-47
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper clarified the changes in feelings on Buddhist sculpture styles in elementary school students through SD-Method research. 1. Their feelings become clearer as they move into higher grades. 2. A clear difference is seen in fourth graders. 3. Between the first grade and the third, feelings on all Buddhist sculptures appear to be similar. 4. From fourth grade through sixth grade, students show different feelings on each of the Buddhist sculpture styles.
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  • Honami ARIHARA, Nobuko HAGIUDA, Motohiro KOZAWA, Ken YAGETA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 49-59
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This article is intended to analyze a questionnaire study using semantic differential technique conducted in order to consider methods of evaluation in art education. In the questionnaire we asked students and teachers about pictures drawn by children. We analyzed the results of the questionnaire by methods including factor analysis, regression analysis, and comparison of the profile of each picture. We also examined the differences among evaluation respondents (students and teachers). As a result, we found that students tend to do similar evaluations whatever their subjects were. However, there is a difference between the evaluations of students and those of teachers. In addition, students evaluated unusual pictures more highly than teachers did. We found that teachers tend to evaluate highly the pictures which were carefully drawn.
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  • Satoshi IKEDA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 61-73
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This research aims to clarify strategies for class improvement to ameliorate QOL (Quality of Life) regarding formative activities for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. The author selected a hypothetical model of class improvement and conducted action research in a class for children with multiple disabilities using the concurrent triangulation approach, which is a mixed methods approach. Four kinds of quantitative data and four kinds of qualitative data were collected and analyzed for hypothesis testing. As a result of the analysis, the hypothesis testing was found to be generally effective, but require some modification; therefore, the author revised the hypothesis model. Next, four kinds of qualitative data were analyzed for a new hypothesis. The author developed a “class improving model,” “class improving flowchart,” and “class improving checklist.”
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  • Shingi IKENAGA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 75-90
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This article shows that the method of ESP (English for Specific Purposes), used in specialist university areas, can be applied to Japanese art appreciation education, through a case study at a junior high school. First it points out why English activities were effective in art appreciation from two points of view: visual recognition and emotion. Next it introduces and considers a practice of art appreciation (English art criticism from interpretation of Japanese and Chinese traditional paintings) in a junior high school. The importance of this education is as follows: 1)Classes in English deepen the thinking faculty in the content of a specialist subject. 2)Development of teaching materials and effective methods are essential conditions for teaching in English.
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  • Hiroya ICHIKAWA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 91-104
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The purpose of this article is to introduce a system that includes art activities into after- school classes for children at the elementary level. The first half clarifies the background of a policy for after school programs in Japan after WWII. From the viewpoint of social welfare, the most important thing is to care for young children lacking childcare. From an educational perspective, afterschool programs are considered a precious time to study more about what is not taught in school. Since FY 2014, the Comprehensive After School Child Plan has been implemented with the aim of coordinating after school day care and after school classes for children. Unlike other care programs, after-school classes aim to provide children the opportunity to engage in various experiences. The latter half is action research based on the collaborative project with the educational administration in Mito city, Ibaraki prefecture. It is through this project that a network supporting arts-based activities in after- school has been formed and organized.
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  • Tomoko INOUE, Takashi HATSUDA, Chiyo KINOSHITA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 105-117
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The purpose of this paper is to develop a teacher training program in Integrated and Cross- Domain Fine Arts Education. First, we created “a teacher training program” covering two days (12 hours) based on the results of the paper submitted in 2014. Second, we considered the results of the implementation on a trial basis for 16 graduate students. Third, we compared tests given before and after the program and analyzed the results. The program resulted in the improvement of instruction techniques and/or expression techniques and awareness of Integrated and Cross- Domain Fine Arts Education. In conclusion, this study showed the significance of carrying out the training for teachers, indicated future issues, and considered the validity of the program contents and workshop management methods.
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  • Hiroshi UEYAMA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 119-131
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper is a part of a series of research on expression guidance using the function of collaborative learning in art education. This paper is a review of educational activities involving making 3D animation which I designed and carried out as collaborative learning for primary schoolchildren, in order to deepen understanding of artistic activities as collaborative learning in art education given the basic understanding of collaborative learning in art education set out in the previous paper. In this paper, I show the importance of the chain of asking – being taught -- realizing -- teaching others – asking again, the actual feeling of your own teaching functioning effectively, and frank evaluations by those whom you taught or were taught by as effective elements for motivation, feelings of fulfillment, and fulfillment of study content.
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  • Takako OSUGA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 133-147
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    Miyatake Tatsuo (1892-1960), a prewar researcher of primitive ethnic art, was strongly influential toward preschool education through creative art after World War II as a practical educator. He indicated many practical examples showing that children were devoted to scribbling with their whole body to express themselves as they really were. When we pursue the origin of Miyatake’s “scribbling with the whole body,” we reach Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), called the father of modern art. The cultural critic Wolfgang Grözinger (1902-1965) commented on Cezanne in his book Kinder Kritzeln Zeichnen Malen. He says that children’s plastic expressions are experienced through breath and the five senses, and that Cezanne tried to create through devoting himself to the original nature like a child. The phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908- 1961) discussed the relationship of the body, painting, and the world through Cezanne’s works. The meaning of Miyatake’s “scribbling with the whole body” is an attempt to recover and cherish children’s plastic expressions derived from “the root of existence itself ” and “the source of body feeings” which have been disturbed by 20th- century civilization.
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  • Hiroshi OHNISHI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 149-160
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study is to clarify the structure and characteristics of teacher performance in the elementary school arts and crafts through analysis. Using the 8 items that make up the performance of teachers derived from previous studies, the characteristics of the performance of two teachers were clarified by the comparison of their art lessons. Furthermore, the establishment of an assessment system of teacher performance based on the eight factors for analysis demonstrated the possibility of development of a self-monitoring system for objective reflection on teaching performance.
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  • Mariko OHASHI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 161-177
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    In this study I analyze preschool teachers’ instructional strategy and purpose for introducing “Seikatsu-ga” (drawings of daily life) to their students. I visited public preschools and observed their drawing activities. Based on the gathered data, I categorized the interactions between young children and teachers. From my observations and interpretations I assembled and analyzed the preschool teachers’ various pedagogical strategies and underlying purposes. Preschool teachers’ instructions included not only recalling images but also various directives such as, “encouraging the awareness and sharing of experiences,” “experiences through drawing,” “strategy to materialize images,” and “confirmation of concrete general instructions.” The findings contained in this study are intended to provide guidelines for instructions on the introduction of drawings. I believe this study can help us to reconsider the activities associated with drawings and to better realize the ideal method of “Seikatsu-ga.”
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  • Masashi OKADA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 179-194
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The author expands and renovates the method of reading-oriented appreciation in this paper. Previous research has focused mainly on the study of Italian Renaissance paintings, but this time the focus is on the 17th century, especially the initial stage of the Baroque and Caravaggio’s “Calling of St. Matthew (1599-1600).” This altarpiece has been displayed as part of the trilogy dealing with St. Matthew at the Contarelli Chapel located in San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. The relation between texts and images is analyzed from multiple angles. This is recognized as an indispensable step for the comprehension of Caravaggio’s imaginative work based on Matthew 9:9. Four articles on “Instructional Resources” published in Art Education provide significant viewpoints and useful attitudes for planning reading-oriented appreciation classes. The six-stage program predicated on Edmund Burke Feldman’s ideas is redesigned for diversified research methods on Caravaggio’s piece. Role-playing of seven characters and a game-like activity for judging who St. Matthew is in the picture are suggested as unique parts of the program. In addition, the idea of international (in this case, Western cultural) understanding through art is set up as an essential pillar for the development and construction of teaching materials for improving visual-reading skills. Grounded on this educational aim, the author asserts the importance of local, in other words, site-specific real experience of art like the altarpiece taken up here for Japanese learners who belong to different cultural traditions, including religions.
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  • Kumiko ODA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 195-205
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper explores the likely benefits of incorporating works of art into childhood modelling education as a concrete response to various difficult stumbling blocks that children encounter. We believe that such an initiative is useful from the perspective of elementary school fine arts education. First, we employed the ‘schematic acquisition and suppression’ perspective to organize the development of children’s pictorial representations. Next, considering art as an environment for clinical application, we investigated the effectiveness of two stimuli aimed at activating pictorial representation: the first was a visual stimulus, outlining part of a work of art, and the second was a verbal stimulus, appreciating that work. By effectively incorporating visual and verbal stimuli, we intend to expand the educational theory of early childhood modelling, thus facilitating children’s smooth transition to the subject of arts and crafts.
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  • Kazuo KANEKO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 207-218
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    Through consideration of art education in schools, the author shows that a characteristic of art education is its “non-prescriptive process” with transcendental orientation, not “the present”, and presents six sub-conclusions as follows. 1. Art education is a “non-prescriptive process” through generated transcendental orientation while guaranteeing a vivid present. 2. Transcendental other people have an educational effect on us. 3. Artworks are given by others to our gift exchange cycle. Appreciation education is the process of enabling students to participate in this cycle. 4. The growth and development of children related to art education has firm logic as a process. 5. A receptive attitude to self-external resistance becomes a metaphor of listening rather than seeing. 6. The positional types of children, educational content, and teachers are present- or process- oriented types.
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  • Kenji KOIKE
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 219-231
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study is a sequel to a 2014 study on the Revision of the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IBMYP). The previous study revealed the characteristics of inquiry-based learning, concept learning, and context-based learning. It was also shown that the connection between the elementary, middle, and high school programmes was further intensified. This study, focusing on assessment, found that the revision was intended to enable easier implementation in terms of assessment, and such examples included: the assessment standards for each grade were all made public; the scores of the four assessment standards were integrated; and the terms required for teaching and evaluating were standardized as instruction terms with clear definitions. The contents to be learned in MYP units and their assessment were investigated through making and examining unit teaching plans based on national textbook materials. Furthermore, the revised assessment standards and the national assessment standpoint were compared. As a result, it was confirmed that the implementation of MYP has become easier for schools specified in the School Education Act in Japan.
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  • Eriko SATO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 233-245
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    In this article, I argued the importance of verbal expression that acts as “educational criticism” in the process of making a rubric, through the explanation of the interaction among a group of art teachers. In the present study, a rubric was designed for the strategy of performance assessment and for a class on responding to a work of art at junior high school level. Although my theory that identifies verbal expression in making a rubric with “educational criticism” is a hypothesis, it is supported by findings based on the Grounded Theory Approach. Specifically, it was proved that the case of reconstruction of educational goals through the use of metaphorical language existed in the data. Art teachers will be able to create and propagate new ideas of educational value by utilizing verbal expression, including metaphor.
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  • Motoki SATO, Hideki YUKI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 247-256
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study focuses on ‘visual sensation and ability’ and clarifies its characteristics in Japan, by comparing “visuality” in the West and in Japan. First, ‘visual sensation and ability’ in the West is considered, with relevant developments in Western art traced from the Renaissance era up to abstract expressionism. Next, ‘visual sensation and ability’ in Japan is considered, including analysis of how Japanese artists approach their subjects based on the Buddhist concept of ‘contemplative examination’. Results show that a strength of Japanese ‘visual sensation and ability’ lies in its pursuit of inner truth. Thus, in our opinion, if art education is to be aware of the concept of Japanese ‘contemplative examination’, it makes sense for students to be encouraged to pursue inner truth and to further acquire both an ability to keenly observe a subject and a tendency to seek the essence of things. As a means to this end, we propose the development of an approach to ‘“contemplative examination” through ink painting’.
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  • Fumiko TAKAHASHI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 257-268
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper discusses a teaching method of making and appreciating ceramic works with 3rd year junior high school students. We made ball-type ceramic bowls looking at dynamic Momoyama tea bowls, and tried collaborative art appreciation through making spaces with ceramic and plane works (tokonoma alcoves), and discussed the best combinations. We were amazed to learn that even with the same ceramic works, the plane context changes the way the work appears. We created good spaces and activities through talking about subtle feelings and matching. The students were able to feel the characteristics of ceramic artwork and sensitive art appreciation. It was clearly proved effective as collaborative art appreciation through making spaces.
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  • Shimpei TAKEUCHI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 269-285
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study identifies the relationship between the Kyoto-fu Gagakko (Kyoto Prefectural School of Painting) and jogakko (girls’ schools) in Kyoto Prefecture and its significance during the Meiji era (1868–1912). By investigating prior studies and historical documents, I found that drawing teachers from the Kyoto-fu Gagakko were intensively involved with brush-drawing education in the jogakko in the city of Kyoto. Additionally, it seems that the employment of these drawing teachers in the jogakko was also affected by teacher–student relationships in local private art schools. However, textbooks published by the drawing teachers from the Kyoto-fu Gagakko were only used in the jogakko located within the city of Kyoto. In conclusion, the commitment of the Kyoto-fu Gagakko to jogakko was an autonomous activity based upon the culture of townspeople that flourished in the area of Rakuchu (Central Kyoto) during the Meiji era.
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  • Yoshikazu TACHIHARA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 287-299
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    When studying Shadow (In the Suzhou Sky), pupils belonging to classes with low sensitivity to aesthetic properties detected, from the motifs and personality (expression) of the scene, “a sense of the speed at which the river is flowing,” “a sense of the density of the streetscape,” and “a sense of traveling on an airplane.” In their viewing of View of Auvers-sur-Oise, a very high proportion were found to be susceptible to physical sensations and a sense of tactile materiality from the plastic features of the rendering and coloring techniques. Having the students engage in a comparative study of the two works revealed aspects that cannot be ignored, despite being disordered in terms of intuitive understanding in a wider sense, including art appreciation capability. In this paper we conceptualized this ability anew, and positioned it within intuitive understanding as a whole.
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  • Sachiko TANAKA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 301-313
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the educational meaning of film appreciation and to report the practice of the experimental plan introduced in the article Film Education Approaches Art Education or Vice Versa (1). This paper is comprised of two parts; (1) a report on the practice of overall film appreciation activities conducted by the author, (2) an analysis of data based on students’ reactions to this practice. Each part contains the following discussion. (1) The author describes the process and contents of film appreciation classes practiced by the author as part of an annual program at Tokyo Metropolitan Senior High School of Fine Arts, Performing Arts and Classical Music. (2) The author compares students’ reactions which include both essays and visualized descriptions of the targeted films. The purpose of this comparison is to verify two hypotheses; (h1) Film appreciation activities aid students to build up their vocabulary for better understanding of the various styles and techniques in the field of cinema, and (h2) Film appreciation activities aid students to hold various points of view on films.
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  • Yukihito TERAMOTO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 315-328
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    Arts and crafts and art education are often considered only with reference to urban areas. For example, there are many reports on appreciation education in cooperation with an art museum. However, there is not often an art museum in rural areas. I carried out questionnaire research into the actual conditions for teachers and students around Shiso City, Hyogo Prefecture. From the answers to the questionnaire, I clarified the difference between urban and rural areas in this subject. The investigation also revealed the relationships between the contempt for this subject and the uneasiness and questions that teachers have. Through the practice of study sessions designing approaches to the issues, I clarified the effectiveness and the need for interactive study sessions, not the lecture and practice type.
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  • Takanori NIINO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 329-340
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the mechanism of children’s creative expression activity. At first I regarded children’s expression activity as the expression some kind of images into visual signs. With this precondition, I interpreted Onimaru Yoshihiro’s theory of stages of development. As well, using the image theory of Henri Bergson, I formed the logic of expressing images with visual sign. From this logic, I concluded that a double effort was necessary to enable children’s creative expression activity: to jump into the depth of thought and the sense, and form a complicated image, and to gradually express an image as a visual sign through trial and error.
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  • Shuji HARUNO, Koichi KASAHARA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 341-360
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    Workshops are generally described through words such as “participation”, “experience” and “cooperation”. In particular, the idea of cooperating and sharing creative experience is an important part of participants’ exchange in workshops. Furthermore, curriculum guidelines for collaborative works in art education emphasize the idea of workshops as an important process in learning. This has also been seen in cooperative campaign research since 1989, investigating the factors which affect the construction of relationships in community workshops. As part of the art education curriculum guidelines for collaborative works, specifically in the expression of narrative, a plan based on “vitality affect” was devised to fulfill the requirements of relationships with others such as “sensibility communication,” the sharing of thoughts and values. These factors were all seen as fundamental to forming effective group relationships for workshops.
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  • Eiji HIRANO
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 361-374
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper aims to clarify the elementary school curriculum of craft education in the early Showa era. The method of study is a comparison of the curricula created by teachers at Elementary Schools Attached to Higher Normal Schools. I compared the characteristics of the elements that constitute the curriculum (such as teaching materials and subject matter). The study found that the curricula were strongly influenced by the teachers’ views on handicraft (such as art, industry, crafts, expression, play etc.).
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  • Tomoki HIRANO, Daiya AIDA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 375-386
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    The purpose of this article is to reveal the results of a volunteer guide training program that adopted the context of “regional” in an urban art project: Roppongi Art Night 2015. Some past art projects may have caused conflicts between the concepts of “artistic” and “regional”. In this study, we approach this problem by using the training techniques of art appreciation through discussion (AAD henceforth). AAD is not only the practice of art appreciation education, but also the practice of “relational art”, finding value in relationships. Through this training program, volunteer guides will come to know the “region” of Roppongi, learn the method of AAD, and aim to deepen their understanding of “(relational) art”.
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  • Tomoya FUJIWARA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 387-400
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    With the recognition that the contemporary art education system is facing the problem of a guaranteed opportunity to teach and learn art post-democracy, with neoliberal reform of social structures underway, I have examined the following in this paper based on the concept of “Reflexivity”. First, the self-evident presuppositions of school art pedagogy, school art education ideology, and school art education systems were individually clarified. Then, assuming that art education in school guarantees the public the opportunity to teach and learn art pursuant to a constitutional requirement under constitutionalism, curriculum- centered education and child-centered education were theoretically analyzed from the perspective of freedom and social rights. Based on this, I have pointed out the limitation that these are school systems de-contextualized from society and have demonstrated the social and political significance in restructuring school art education to re- contextualize it to society.
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  • Kanae MINOWA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 401-413
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This article investigates the relationship between art education and religion in the Islamic world, through field work in the Republic of Maldives. The investigation was based on an ethnographic approach which mainly involved classroom observations and interviews with Muslim teachers. While there were no notable instances indicating the relationship between art education and Islam found in the classroom observations, more insight was gained in the interviews with Muslim teachers. The interviews revealed not only that the teachers had a negative understanding of sensitivity in representing figures, but that there was a positive relationship between art education and Islam. These teachers gave value to their art classes by finding the link between their beliefs and art education, although the classes themselves seemed totally secular. The findings in the article provide new information which will become a basis for developing art education adapted to Islam.
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  • Toru MURATA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 415-428
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper aims to clarify the process of children’s formative expressive behavior. The study included artistic play activities with four- and five-year-old children, recording the children’s behavior with a video camera. The observation and video analysis yielded several conclusions. First, it was observed during the activities that children used tools and materials in original ways to create various shapes; this behavior demonstrated growth in their sense of identity. Second, the children’s formative expressive behavior exhibited diverse characteristics, such as material play, pattern making, sign making, and image making. Third, the process of the children’s expressions, having various features, could lead to their subsequent expressions, thus hinting at the continuous and developmental nature of their expressive behavior.
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  • Ayano MORI
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 429-440
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This article demonstrates the process of children’s individual creative expression. The analysis uses the practice of a project approach because this form of education emphasizes the connection between children’s everyday life and art and their identity. This influences children’s individual expression positively. The process was classified into 8 patterns. In the process, 3 elements are important: experience in everyday life, environment, and materials. Children recall the scenes and feelings of moving or impressive experiences during creative activity. Involved in their environment during the creative activity, children make and change artistic images. In particular, the materials which are included in the environment are directly used in the art after children become involved. These elements engage with each other, and children create their own images and individual creative expression.
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  • Ken YAGETA, Nobuko HAGIUDA, Motohiro KOZAWA, Honami ARIHARA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 441-451
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This study considers how the continuity of drawing and reflection in elementary school morning activities contributes to students’ mental development, growth, and creativity cultivation. We measured the effects of this activity on the students with two questionnaires to all the students of two schools in each school term, and also with interviews with some teachers of both schools. As a result of qualitative and quantitative analysis thereof, we can see the effectiveness of this activity: that is, this activity has the potential to connect with expressive ability in other subject fields and to activate students’ mutual communicative ability.
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  • Yasushi WASHIYAMA
    2016 Volume 37 Pages 453-464
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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    This paper analyses the educational planning and establishment of the subject of handicraft at the Junior High School Attached to Hiroshima Higher Normal School during the Taisho period. An examination of relevant literature indicated that the first division system of the junior high school affiliated with the aforementioned school led to the establishment of the subject of handicraft during the Taisho period. The handicraft education curriculum was developed by teachers of the drawing and handicraft study group and was supported by a system of shared teaching posts by teachers at Hiroshima Higher Normal School as well as those at the elementary school and junior high school affiliated with it. This established the study of handicraft as a subject. Furthermore, the names of 11 instructors who were involved in handicraft education and who established the general framework for changes in the handicraft education curriculum in the Taisho era have been identified.
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages 465-476
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages 478-479
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages 480-482
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages 484
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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  • 2016 Volume 37 Pages 485-487
    Published: 2016
    Released: August 26, 2019
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