The proposed approach to validation of steam sterilization in autoclaves follows the basic life cycle concepts applicable to all validation programs. Understand the function of sterilization process, develop and understand the cycles to carry out the process, and define a suitable test or series of tests to confirm that the function of the process is suitably ensured by the structure provided. Sterilization of product and components and parts that come in direct contact with sterilized product is the most critical of pharmaceutical processes. Consequently, this process requires a most rigorous and detailed approach to validation. An understanding of the process requires a basic understanding of microbial death, the parameters that facilitate that death, the accepted definition of sterility, and the relationship between the definition and sterilization parameters. Autoclaves and support systems need to be designed, installed, and qualified in a manner that ensures their continued reliability. Lastly, the test program must be complete and definitive. In this paper, in addition to validation study, documentation of IQ, OQ and PQ concretely were described.
We analyzed the production of neutral lipids by the marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain PAD-2 using hexadecane or succinate as the sole carbon source. Results showed that strain PAD-2 was able to grow and reduce the surface tension to 33± 1.5 mN m-1 and 58± 1.5 mN m-1 when n-hexadecane or succinate was used as the sole carbon source, respectively. The lipophilic compounds produced by Marinobacter sp. strain PAD-2 were extracted, and then crude lipophilic compounds, expected to be wax ester-like lipids, were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) . Furthermore, the lipophilic compound demonstrating surface activity was purified and subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Although these did not give definite structural information due to the weak molecular ion peak (M+) , one component Ma-1 showed almost the same mass spectrum as that of component Fa-2, which represented a biosurfactant derived from Dietzia maris reported previously. Cell hydrophobicity was measured by a test of bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons. A higher hydrophobic cell surface was observed in strain PAD-2. Extracellular wax ester-like compounds seem to be one type of the surface active compounds when bacteria grow on hexadecane or succinate as the sole carbon source.
We previously found that the gemini quaternary salt (gemini-QUAT) containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 3,3'- (2,7-dioxaoctane) bis (1-decylpyridinium bromide) (3DOBP-4,10) , exerted fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and caused respiration inhibition and the cytoplasmic leakage of ATP, magnesium, and potassium ions. Here, we investigated how the gemini-QUAT, 3DOBP-4,10, exerts more powerful antimicrobial activity than the mono-QUAT N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and examined the association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antimicrobial mechanism. Antifungal assays showed that the activity of 3DOBP-4,10 against two yeasts, S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans, was significantly elevated under aerobic conditions, and largely reduced under anaerobic conditions (nitrogen atmosphere) . Adding radical scavengers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and potassium iodide (KI) also decreased the fungicidal activity of 3DOBP-4,10 but negligibly affected that of CPC. We measured survival under static conditions and found that the rapid fungicidal profile of 3DOBP-4,10 was lost, whereas that of CPC was slightly affected in the presence of KI. Our results suggest that 3DOBP-4,10 exerts powerful antimicrobial activity by penetrating the cell wall and membrane, which then allows oxygen to enter the cells, where it participates in the generation of intracellular ROS. The activity could thus be attributable to a synergic antimicrobial combination of the disruption of organelle membranes by the QUAT and oxidative stress imposed by ROS.
We tried to discriminate 16 strains of the Bacillus cereus group including B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, and B. weihenstephanensis strains by the pattern analysis of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) -PCR. Eight oligonucleotides primers were prepared and the polymorphic patterns of the DNA of each strain were compared with those of others. The primers E and F gave different patterns of RAPD-PCR products in all strains of the B. cereus group, so these primers are effective tools for the discrimination of closely related strains. All eight primers showed different polymorphic patterns of DNA for the four strains of B. cereus isolated from the kitchen of a private home, which verifies the advantage of the RAPD-PCR analysis for the discrimination of isolated strains of B. cereus from the environment.
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes upper respiratory diseases in cats. Recently, an FCV infection with a high mortality rate has been confirmed, and there is need to develop a treatment for cases of acute infection. We evaluated whether the replication of FCV could be prevented by RNA interference.
For this study, we designed an siRNA targeted to the polymerase region of the strain FCV-B isolated from a cat that died after exhibiting neurological symptoms. Cells transfected with siR-pol dose-dependently suppressed the replication of FCV-B. siR-pol suppressed its replication by suppressing the target viral RNA.
To determine the cytotoxicity of antibiotic eyedrops to ocular surface cells using a semi-quantitative method, a range of commercially available antibiotic eyedrops were assessed by using three corneal cell lines and one conjunctival cell line. All antibiotic solutions were free of benzalkonium chloride. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and neutral red assay following the exposure of cells to the undiluted, 2- and 10-fold diluted drugs for 10, 30, and 60 min. Toxicity was compared using % cell viability score (%CVS) . The tested eyedrops and values of %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 were Bestron® (cefmenoxime, 100, 94) , Panimycin® (dibekacin, 86, 58) , Noflo® (norfloxacin, 90, 50) , Cravit® (levofloxacin, 86, 46) , Tosfulo® (tosufloxacin, 57, -3) , and Vigamox® (moxifloxacin, 57, -6) . Cell viability markedly increased after dilution. For instance, cell viability assayed by MTT was > 80% for all the measurements in antibiotics diluted 10-fold, and the rate of the measurements showing > 80% cell viability decreased to 43% (31 out of 72 measurements) in the solutions diluted 2-fold. Of the drugs tested, Bestron® containing cefmenoxime showed the weakest toxicity. Vigamox® containing moxifloxacin and Tosuflo® containing tosufloxacin were more toxic when compared with the other antibiotics. CVS was useful for the comparison of the cytotoxicity of the drugs.
In May 2011, strain HYNE-20 (=JCM 17837) was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from a foot spa in Niigata, Japan, by a plating method using glycine vancomycin polymyxin B cycloheximide α -ketoglutarate (GVPCα ) medium at 36°C for 7 d. The 16S rDNA sequences (1,469bp) of this strain (accession number: AB638719) had high (99.7%) similarity to Legionella rubrilucens, and we identified that this strain was indeed Legionella rubrilucens. When this strain was cultured on buffered charcoal yeast extract α -ketoglutarate (BCYEα ) agar at 36°C for 7 d, it exhibited red autofluorescence under UV light (365 nm) . The dominant cellular fatty acids of the strain HYNE-20 were 16:1ω7c (29.9%) , and the guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) content of DNA was 49.0 mol%. This is the first report that Legionella rubrilucens was isolated from a hot spring for foot soaking.