Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent cleaning action. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in the cleaning and disinfection processes depends on the concentration of available chlorine and the pH of the solution. Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) is a weak acid and dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (-OCI) and proton (H+) depending on the solution pH. It is generally believed that HOCI is the active species in the germicidal action, whereas the concentration of -OCI is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency. This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite differs from that of its cleaning activity. This paper describes the theory and practice of the cleaning and disinfecting operations based on the use of sodium hypochlorite solution.
The lethal effects of shock pressure treatment on suspended Vibrio sp.cells were examined. Lethality of shock pressures to the Vibrio sp. cells increased with the increase in the values of maximum shock pressures generated in the cell suspension. When the value was around 114 MPa, the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced from 108.5±0.1 colonyforming units (CFU) to 103.3-103.4 CFU/ml, and complete loss of colony-forming ability was seen at the maximum value of 282 MPa. Almost all the cells could survive after the exposure to shock pressures including the maximum value of around 189 MPa in the presence of 2% sodium ascorbate (VitC-Na), whereas the total number of colony-forming cells was reduced to 101.6-102.1 CFU/ml in the absence of VitC-Na. The surviving cells, however, showed sensitivity to 0.8% sodium cholate, a strong detergent. About 11% of cell-associated proteins had leaked out when the cells were exposed to lethal shock pressures including the maximum value of around 290 MPa in the absence of VitC-Na. These results indicate that the radicals generated in the cell suspension may be closely related to the loss of colony-forming ability of the Vibrio sp.cells. Damage to the outer membrane structure also seems to have occurred by the exposure to shock pressures.
The role of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (POELE), a nonionic surfactant, in removing bovine serum albumin (BSA) and catechin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles was quantitatively studied. Relatively large fractions of adsorbed BSA and catechin were removed from PET particles under weak alkaline conditions below pH 9, whereas cleaning with high concentrations of NaOH was not so effective, especially on the removal of BSA. This was attributed to the lower susceptibility of PET particles to water-based alkali (OH-) cleaning because of the lower degree of the polarity of PET surfaces. The combined use of NaOH solutions of moderate pHs and POELE could successfully improve the efficiency of cleaning of PET particles without a significant dissolution of PET materials. There was a good correlation between the lowered surface tension The combined use of NaOH solutions of moderate pHs and POELE could successfully improve the efficiency of cleaning of PET particles without a significant dissolution of PET materials. There was a good correlation between the lowered surface tension (γ) of the NaOH solution with POELE and the removal efficiency of BSA or catechin. No effect of POELE was observed on the NaOH cleaning of hydrophilic alumina (Al2O3) particles fouled with BSA. It could be concluded that the role of POELE in NaOH cleaning of PET particles was to lower the γ of the NaOH solution and hence to facilitate penetration of OH- ions into the PET-BSA and PET-catechin interfaces.
For the long term storage of tap water, we developed a separate type of tank (5 m3) equipped with an electrolysis system to control bacterial growth. The electrolysis conditions using 20A direct current and a water flow rate of 10L/min were capable of producing available chlorine (AC) at the rate of 5-8mg/min and raising the AC level of the stored tap water by about 0.2 mg/kg within 20-30 min The electrolyzed tap water with 0.2 mg/kg AC showed a capability per ml of killing 105-106 cfu of bacteria such as Escherichia coil and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 15 sec. A 6-month trial operation of the storage system with an automatic electrolysis control to keep AC level ranging 0.2-0.4 mg/kg demonstrated that the system worked well for the stored tap water in suppressing bacterial growth as well as in keeping good potable quality with reference to the 46 parameters specified for Japanese tap water. Actually, the electrolysis treatment was administered intermittently with an interval of about two weeks. Thus we believe the developed system has good potential to secure a potable water supply not only in the occasion of emergencies but also in countries having problems in the supply of safe drinking water.