The purpose of this study is to clarify how the cooperative banks contribute financial inclusion. In France where cooperative banks take more than half of the market share, they have contributed to introduce the framework of microcredit by cooperation with other social organizations and to establish the consultation outlets for the people in difficulties.
There are three reasons behind it:(1)they still have spirit of mutual aid,(2)they have strong connection with regional and social organizations as their members, and(3)there is institutional environment where no regulation of transaction volume with non−members exists.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of consultation and lending service by co- operatives in welfare society. I confirm features of lending service by co-operative union as compared to pubic lending service for poor people in Japan and Grameen microcredit model. This paper reveals two contributions of this lending service:(1)this service contribute financial inclusion for poor people;(2)this service builds reciprocal relationship and provides the social bases of self-respect as it is similar to Mauss’s gift giving theory.
Even after the World War II, the electric power company did not take electricity supply in so- called remote areas, and the electric power business was widely done by agricultural cooperatives etc. in remote islands and mountainous areas of Japan. This study reveals, however, the electric power projects were also done by consumers’ co-ops in various places. In postwar Japan, there were at least more than 10 consumers’ electric co-ops and actually supplied electricity to local members. In this paper, we examine several cases closely, and clarify the significance of consumers’ electric co-ops in the Japanese cooperative history.
In this study, we clarified the history of childcare center management, conducted a questionnaire survey on parents of children who actually use nursery schools, clarified the expectations and evaluations for nurseries involving with Japan Agricultural Cooperatives(JA)in case of JA Himishi. The results of this study found that parents' satisfaction with nursery schools was high. On the other hand, although it is a social contribution, it is necessary for the member to deepen their understanding in order for JA to enter nursery school management.