There has been developed a quantitative analysis in the fields of GC/MS that can dispense with calibration function and standard materials instead by using a database of necessary information about quantification (called CCLD method). This method can simultaneously be used for several hundreds of target materials with a sophisticated database. However, it is almost impossible in practice to provide validation characteristics such as detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) for every material included in the database, if repetition measurement of real samples is adopted for the estimation of measurement standard deviation on which DL and QL are based. This paper presents a new approach to estimate the standard deviation of measurements without the repetition of real samples according to the method of ISO 11843 Part 7. Only samples are taken as an example, but the presented approach will open up new possibilities for the future of the CCLD method.
Nonylphenol (NP), a kind of alkylphenol, is the chemical having toxicity for mainly reproduction to organisms. Toxicity of NP has been evaluated as a mixture because commercial and industrial NP product is isomeric mixture. However, limited information on toxicity of each isomer to aquatic organisms is available. To determine the fundamental toxicity of NP isomers, we performed acute toxicity test of a linear isomer (4-n-NP), 18 kinds of branched isomers, and an equivalent mixture of 19 isomers (linear and branched isomers) to larval medaka (Oryzias latipes). As a result of the test on OECD test guideline 203, median lethal concentration (96 h-LC50) of each isomer to Oryzias latipes was as follows: 4-n-NP, 439 μg/L; equivalent mixture, 265 μg/L; 18 branched isomers, 193 (NP-O)-450 (NP-A) μg/L. The 96 h-LC50 values of 17 branched isomers (except for NP-A) were lower than those of 4-n-NP. The relationship of NP isomers between 96 h-LC50 and molecular structure in this study differed from the report of relationship between estrogen activity and molecular structure.
In many cases, use of chemical substances is intermittent in a short time at laboratory of university. For this reason, the possibility has been pointed out that health disturbance risk in laboratories may be undetectable by the working environment measurement which is prescribed by Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. We thought that exposure assessment based on the official method by working environment measurement could be carried out more properly by the combined application of personal exposure measurement and risk assessment of chemical substances. To verify this probability, personal exposure measurement and qualitative risk assessment of chemical substances were performed in parallel with the official method by working environment measurement in several laboratories of Japanese universities. As a result, personal exposure measurement and qualitative chemical risk assessment detected the health disturbance risk undetectable in official method by working environment measurement, and the possibility was suggested that these methods may compensate the work environment management based on the official method by working environment measurement.
The collection and proper treatment of the liquid- and solid-waste with unclear composition (Unclear Composition Laboratory Waste: UCLW) was studied. It was premised to carry out the thermal disposal using the waste treatment system in Environmental Science Center at The University of Tokyo. We considered the information of UCLWs about composition required in order to supply to the organic treatment equipment. The analytical method for UCLWs and the pretreatment method for supplying to equipment were also considered. Based on these results, 21,695 UCLWs (about 19,940 kg) were collected. Each analysis sample was prepared by mixing several UCLWs safely. Electropositive elements (such as Hg, As, Se, Cd, Pb, Cr, B, V, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ba, Mn and Mo) were measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also measured the electronegative elements (such as F, Cl, Br, I, P, S and N) with the combustion-ion chromatography and/or ion selective electrodes. The pretreatments of UCLWs for supplying to equipment were carried out based on these measurement results. The proper treatment of 11,957 UCLWs (about 14,315 kg) was completed. We proposed that our novel techniques about proper treatment of UCLWs could be more generally applied. It was concluded that the developed methods in this study are applicable for the collection and proper treatment of UCLWs in other universities and research institutes without thermal disposal equipment.
Experiments and practical training using a lot of chemicals are conducted at National Colleges of Technology as well as at universities. A big difference between colleges of technology and universities, however, is that there are no such centers or departments which specialize in the management of chemicals and the liquid-waste treatment at colleges of technology as universities have. The authors belong to the Technical Support Center for Education and Research or some engineering departments such as the Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, and support student-experiments, practical training and research for graduation. In some colleges of technology, technical employees are also in charge of the management of chemicals and the liquid-waste treatment. In this paper we report on the present situation of the environmental safety education and the treatment of ordinary trash and liquid-waste at colleges of technology. We also point out some problems which colleges of technology have and make a proposal for solving the problems.
This paper introduces the history of an oil field in Akita Prefecture, Japan, and takes a comprehensive look at the oil-gas field today and the present state of crude oil and natural gas production at the field. A successful shale oil drilling project in Akita Prefecture, Japan's first, is also examined in detail.