1,4-dioxane, which is widely used as an organic solvent and a stabilizer for chlorinated compounds, etc., is likely to contaminate inorganic liquid wastes containing harmful chemicals such as heavy metal ions in the laboratory because it can easily mix with water. We have to develop the process for disposing of those liquid wastes properly, considering that they can be taken in the university plant for the disposal of liquid wastes. In this study, 1,4-dioxane of approximately 30 mg/L in the water was treated for degradation using a UV/O3 treatment facility installed in the university. It is a bubble column reactor of 130 L in liquid volume. 1,4-dioxane was degraded by O3 treatment and its concentration was reduced to less than 0.3 mg/L, which meets the regulation of Japanese low, after the treatment for 80 min. O3 treatment with UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of 1,4-dioxane furthermore. 1,4-dioxane was not detected by this treatment for 30 min. Degradation rate of 1,4-dioxane by UV/O3 treatment is higher than those reported in the literature,indicating that the treatment by using this facility is effective for degrading 1,4-dioxane in the wastewater.
Triclosan (TCS) and Trichlorocarban (TCC) are widely used as antibacterial agent in various industrial products,such as textile goods, soap, shampoo, liquid toothpaste and cosmetics, and often detected in wastewater effluent. The aim of this study was to investigate toxicologically significant effects of TCS and TCC exposure on gene expression in mysid (Americamysis bahia) using DNA microarray. Juvenile mysid were exposed to 0.5 µg/L of TCS and 0.05 µg/L of TCC for 24 hours, and mRNA expression profiles in their whole bodies were analyzed. We identified statistically significant (p<0.05) regulation (expression ratio of exposed to control > 3) in 312 genes responding to 0.5 µg/L of TCS and 264 genes responding to 0.05 µg/L of TCC. There were merely 231 genes found responding to both exposures of TCS and TCC. The up-regulation in response to TCS and TCC was observed in vitellogenin and clottable protein. These genes are expressed more than 30 times in both experimental plots, which indicates the applicability of them in serving as biomarkers of antibacterial agents in mysid. These results suggested that endocrine disrupting effect of TCS and TCC would be potent for marine crustacean.
Experimental laboratories in universities use various chemical substances that often involve risks depending on their properties and prescribed handling procedures. This study administered a questionnaire to quantitatively clarify the evaluation axis of chemical risks that the experts of chemistry in universities associate from the structural formula of chemical compounds. The survey queried respondents concerning the hazards of chemicals (toxicity, irritancy,inflammability, and overall hazardousness);respondents used a 5-point scale to answer questions aboutthe structural formulas of group A (familiar substances) and those of group B (non-familiar or fictional substances). For the compounds in group A, the answers were in good accordance with the extent of hazardousness according to GHS criteria,which suggests that the experts of chemistry well recognize the hazards of chemical substances for well-known compounds. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for group B suggests that the structure-to-hazards image of chemicals for the experts of chemistry is comprised either by the analogy of the chemical properties of the compoundto well-known compounds, or by the overall structure (ex. number of carbons) or partial structure (elements, functional group) of the compound. In addition, the results of the correlation analysis between the “overall hazardousness” and the three specific hazards demonstrates that each axis for the image of “overall hazardousness” consists of the three hazards combined in a complex manner. Statistically being able to extract significant axes for the image of hazards common to the experts of chemistry, even though the experience of chemical usage should be individually different, implies that the "structureto-hazard" image in the experts does not form according to each expert's own individual experience but results through a common formation process.
Triclosan (TCS) and Trichlorocarban (TCC) are widely used as antibacterial agent in liquid toothpaste, soap, shampoo, cosmetics and so on. In this study, we evaluated potential biological effects of TCS and TCC on mysid (Americamysis bahia). Survival and growth test was performed from a procedure of the USEPA. The 96h-LC50 values were 70 µg/L in TCS, and 12 µg/L in TCC, respectively. The growth and maturity examination demonstrated significant reduction in each measurement item at extremely lower concentrations than LC50 levels of TCS and TCC. The results of this study indicate that subchronic exposures to TCS and TCC affect growth and reproductive fitness of mysid.
We conducted water quality testing on multiple river basins, located in the mountain and forest areas which had leisure facilities, such as fishing ponds and camping sites brought about by the leisure boom of recent years. Based on the data on water quality of these tests, we carried out the water quality analysis, using the method of multivariate statistics whose standardized data were simple. Extracting the parameter of the changes in the water quality by the principle component analysis, we carried out the water quality classification. The results indicated that for two out of the three rivers tested, we were able to classify them into forest streams whose water quality was good and water zones which had been impacted by leisure facilities. However, regarding the one remaining river, we were unable to extract the parameter of the changes in water quality, being that no specific tendencies were detectable in the water quality. In the principle component analysis based on the data of water quality, the cumulative contribution ratio was as high as 86% with up to three principle components. In spite of this result, we were unable to extract the parameter of the changes in water quality. We believe that the reason for that was the fact that this river had been impacted by the quality of geology and of the ground water in such an intensive way that no difference was detectable in the water quality,irrespective of whether it was upstream or downstream, or whether it was natural or man-made water zones.
Outline and important points on legal positioning, features and safety management of nuclear materials containing uranium or thorium are explained. It has focused on following three points; 1) use of small amount of nuclear materials and its safety management, 2) features of raw materials or consumer products containing uranium or thorium, and how to ensure its safety, and 3) countermeasures to unexpected situation to find out a nuclear material which is not under management. Once a small trouble on nuclear materials has happened, even if the material amount is little, social impact might become very strong because of the nuance of the term "nuclear". It is important to fully recognize that the control of the incoming and outgoing of nuclear materials based on international promises is severely requested. It is also important to implement related regulations and guidelines on material management and exposure control. Furthermore, it is important to realize rational and reasonable management on nuclear materials corresponding to situations with understanding its real features and level of hazard.
Planning and control has been emphasized as the management function in the concept of analytic strategy.However, the modern corporation is going to utilize the emergent strategy under the today's business environment that is changing discontinuously. The emergent strategy means the strategy that is crafted based on ideas emerged from the learning organization. Based on this new management theory, the education in universities is required to be changed. It is necessary to develop the talented human resources who can challenge anything voluntary based on self-judgment and self-responsibility. I have utilized the environmental project for education of my seminar students, and tried to cultivate talented human resources required in modern society. The theme of this environmental project is practical use of garbage, and has developed into Eco-Sweets activity, in which garbage is upcycled into sweets. It has grown to be a big event which involves about 60 sweets store in Kagoshima. I and my seminar students are tackling together and challenge this event.Although it is burdensome for university students to challenge this project, they are definitely growing through this project. I believe that this challenge is meaningful from an educational viewpoint, too.
The Kyoto Institute of Technology (KIT) has constituted environmental management system (EMS) to educate researchers and students with environmental awareness, and officially obtained certification of ISO 14001 in 2001. In addition to the teaching staff, fourth-year undergraduates and graduate students assigned to the laboratories are constituent members participating in EMS. Besides environmental subjects, the basic training has been conducted for all members as the EMS education on April every year, and then the training for experiment-sites on the management of sewage effluent of the campus, chemical substances, high pressure gas and liquid nitrogen, classification and treatment for waste liquids and solid wastes has been carried out. The workshop on working environment measurement using gas detector tubes has been conducted on September since 2005 and the emergency training has been carried out in midOctober every year. The 4th Wednesday of April was established as "The Education day for Environment and Safety" from 2012 to educate whole members in KIT with environmental safety awareness, and the training for non-experiment sites and the emergency training for first-year undergraduates were added.
Many universities have introduced relational database management systems (RDBMS) for chemicals to unify the management of chemical reagents in laboratories. The RDBMS is based on a client-server model. However, issues such as introduction, operation, maintenance, management, and operational issues of the RDBMS for chemicals in each university have not been clarified. In this study, the survey by a questionnaire was performed about the operation management situation of the chemical management system in each university which was mainly concerned with national university corporation. We clarified the staff organization, staff assignment, and management state of RDBMS for chemicals in universities. In particular, we showed that management policy of the number of chemical reagents master data, the frequency of updates,management state varied among universities.