In the CCLD method, calibration curves necessary for identification and quantification of chemicals and the information on the retention time are entered into the database. It is possible to efficiently analyze various types of chemicals without measuring the appropriate standards of the target chemicals.Since the CCLD method uses calibration curves registered in the database to calculate quantity, it is currently necessary to correct the mass spectrometer using the DFTPP turning method of EPA625 (hereinafter referred to as“D method”), and spectral patterns meet the standard of the relative strength ratio prescribed by EPA625.However, to satisfy the standard of the prescribed relative strength ratio, one cannot take full advantage of the secondary electron multiplier (SEM) with conversion dynode (CD), which aims to improve the sensitivity of higher-mass analyses. It was necessary to disable CD and lower the sensitivity of the higher-mass analyses.Therefore, we investigated a way to apply the CCLD method with the GC/MS method that has been corrected with the enabled CD (hereinafter referred to as “A method”) with the aim of improving the sensitivity of the CCLD method.We developed a conversion equation to correct the relative strength ratio of mass spectrometer obtained from the A method to the prescribed relative strength ratio, and converted the internal standard calibration curve registered in the CCLD method database.Pesticide standard was measured, and quantified by the converted calibration curve. For 37 out of 46 pesticides,measured values showed an agreement of 0.8.1.5 times between the A method and the conventional CCLD method,indicating the effective functioning of the developed conversion equation.These results indicate that this method is effective in increasing the sensitivity of the CCLD method.
The Basic Design of local governments includes many keywords to specify the integrated pictures of economical,social and environmental state of the community in future. These keywords shall be thought of headline issues (or capital/stock) of future sustainability of the community.We established the sustainability evaluation framework through the matrix of the keywords as receptors and the policies as actors. Furthermore we established the evaluation system which feedbacks the result of the each policy evaluation at the lowest level to the higher level of the policy structure.The evaluation system of the policies with public participation is carried out from the point of contribution to the future pictures of sustainable community in the Basic Design.
Inappropriate treatment of industrial wastes, including liquid wastes may cause major accidents and/or serious environmental pollutions. In the technical point of view, the liquid waste, treatment means removal of hazardous properties from liquid waste. However, in a university or other higher educational institution, the liquid wastes treatment includes not only a technical aspect but also an educational aspect. The most important factor for minimizing the risk potential in the waste treatment is that every member of the university staff (including students and other researchers) concerns own waste material produced by their activity. A mission of the university is to educate their staff about the risk potential of the wastes. The university staff learns the environmental and health effects of liquid wastes management through waste management. The liquid waste treatment in the university is classified as self-treatment and outsourcing the waste treatment. There is no remarkable difference in the technical aspect between the above two liquid wastes treatment. The self-treatment of the liquid wastes is effective to train the university staff and to educate students. This minimizes the risk potential in the wastes treatment. In the case of the outsourcing, reducing the expenses and efforts for the wastes treatment may lose sense of the risk potential of the chemical liquid wastes. It is necessary to care the education of the university staff. Appropriate management of liquid wastes makes management of whole industrial waste include liquid waste easy.
Zinc is one of the industrially important metals widely used as materials of such as plating and brass. In addition,zinc is one of the essential minerals which is necessary to keep human body healthy. On the other hand, intake of an excess amount of zinc would be toxic for organisms including human, thus the environmental standard is prescribed in Japan. In this study, we examined toxic effect of zinc chloride on medaka larvae. We found that LC50 of zinc on medaka larvae was 5.4 (5.2-5.7 95% CL) mg/L. Furthermore, we showed that sodium chloride and sodium dihydrogenphosphate reduced the toxicity, especially the effect of sodium dihydrogenphosphate was remarkable. Histological and proliferation defect were not detected even in the zinc-treated larvae. These results confirmed the fact that co-existing sodium salt affects the toxicity of zinc, and the effect varies depending on forms of the salts.In addition, it was revealed that the defects of the cells caused by zinc in culture system does not necessarily arise in living organisms treated with zinc.