Most plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains have been classified into three biovars, “biovar 1 (A. tumefaciens; Rhizobium radiobacter), biovar 2 (A. rhizogenes; R. rhizogenes) and biovar 3 (A. vitis; R. vitis)”. The bacteria possess diverse types of genomic organization depending on the biovar. Previous genomic physical maps indicated difference in location of rDNA and chromosomally-coded virulence genes between biovar 1 and 2 genomes. In order to understand biovar 3 genome and its evolution in relation to the biovar 1, 2 and 3 genomes, we constructed physical map of a pathogenic biovar 3 strain K-Ag-1 in this study. Its genome consisted of two circular chromosomes (3.6 and 1.1 Mbp in length), and three plasmids (560, 230 and 70 kbp). Gene mapping based on the physical map showed presence of two rDNA loci in the larger chromosome and at least one rDNA locus in the smaller chromosome. Six chromosomal virulence genes, namely chvA, chvD, chvE, glgP, exoC and ros were found in the larger chromosome and not in the smaller chromosome. The location of rDNA loci is similar with that of biovar 1 genome, whereas the location of chromosomal virulence genes is similar with that of biovar 2 genome despite of the closer 16S-rRNA based phylogenetic relation of biovar 3 with biovar 1 than with biovar 2. Genomic PFGE RFLP analysis revealed that the K-Ag-1 strain, which was isolated on a kiwifruit plant in Japan, has the closest intra-species relation with two strains isolated from grapevine plants in Japan among eight biovar 3 strains examined. This datum suggests that the line of the strain is a major one in biovar 3 in Japan. Evolution of the genome of the strain is discussed based on the data.
Bacterial flagellar rod structure is built across the peptidoglycan (PG) layer. A Salmonella enterica flagellar protein FlgJ is believed to consist of two functional domains, the N-terminal half acting as a scaffold or cap essential for rod assembly and the C-terminal half acting as a PG hydrolase (PGase) that makes a hole in the PG layer to facilitate rod penetration. In this study, molecular data analyses were conducted on FlgJ data sets sampled from a variety of bacterial species, and three types of FlgJ homologs were identified: (i) “canonical dual-domain” type found in β- and γ-proteobacteria that has a domain for one of the PGases, acetylmuramidase (Acm), at the C terminus, (ii) “non-canonical dual-domain” type found in the genus Desulfovibrio (δ-proteobacteria) that bears a domain for another PGase, M23/M37-family peptidase (Pep), at the C terminus and (iii) “single-domain” type found in phylogenetically diverged lineages that lacks the Acm or Pep domain. FlgJ phylogeny, together with the domain architecture, suggested that the single-domain type was the original form of FlgJ and the canonical dual-domain type had evolved from the single-domain type by fusion of the Acm domain to its C terminus in the common ancestor of β- and γ-proteobacteria. The non-canonical dual-domain type may have been formed by fusion of the Pep domain to the single-domain type in the ancestor of Desulfovibrio. In some lineages of γ-proteobacteria, the Acm domain appeared to be lost secondarily from the dual-domain type FlgJ to yield again a single-domain type one. To rationalize the underlying mechanism that gave rise to the two different types of dual-domain FlgJ homologs, we propose a model assuming the lineage-specific co-option of flagellum-specific PGase from diverged housekeeping PGases in bacteria.
Eukaryotic DNA polymerases δ and ε, both of which are required for chromosomal DNA replication, contain proofreading 3’→5’exonuclease activity. DNA polymerases lacking proofreading activity act as strong mutators. Here we report isolation of thermotolerant mutants by using a proofreading-deficient DNA polymerase δ variant encoded by pol3-01 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The parental pol3-01 strain grew only poorly at temperatures higher than 38°C. By stepwise elevation of the incubation temperature, thermotolerant mutants that could proliferate at 40°C were successfully obtained; however, no such mutants were isolated with the isogenic POL3 strain. The recessive hot1-1 mutation was defined by genetic analysis of a weak thermotolerant mutant. Strong thermotolerance to 40°C was attained by multiple mutations, at least one of which was recessive. These results indicate that a proofreading-deficient DNA δ polymerase variant is an effective mutator for obtaining yeast mutants that have gained useful characteristics, such as the ability to proliferate in harsh environments.
It has previously been shown that paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be detected in later generations in Drosophila. To further analyze the paternal transmission of mtDNA, the progeny of two intraspecific and three interspecific crosses were examined in the frequency of the paternal transmission of mtDNA, using closely related species of the melanogaster species subgroup. Types of mtDNA in the progeny of the individual backcrosses of F1 females were analyzed by selective amplification of paternal mtDNA. More than 100 F1 females were examined for each backcross. The same type of mtDNA as that of the paternal mtDNA was detected in approximately 20 – 60% of the backcrosses. The present results indicate that paternal leakage occurs in the intraspecific crosses as well as in the interspecific crosses in Drosophila.