In this paper, the author reviews both the societal contexts and the nature of conceptualization in the history of geography through the reseach of three eminent Japanese geographers: Koji IIZUKA, Taro TSUJIMURA and Katsue MISAWA. IIZUKA was positively concerned with political situations and thus he attempted to bring about innovation in Japanese geography. TSUJIMURA did not participate in the political situations, although he strived for the establishment of system and theory of Japanese academic geography. MISAWA studied geography practically, with concern about rural readjustment in Nagano Prefecture. While IIZUKA was affected by the French school of geography and TSUJIMURA was affected mainly by the German school of geography, MISAWA was not directly affected by the geography of any foreign country. IIZUKA and. TSUJIMURA both graduated from Tokyo University and were also professors at Tokyo University. Although MISAWA never attended middle school, he became a teacher at Suwa Middle School in Nagano Prefecture. Therefore various inclinations marked the characters of the three geographers. The author applies a biographical and bibliographical approach to this study, through studies on the relation between theories and both the trend of the times and the studyenvironment. There is no severance in the advancement of geographical science from the times of World War II through the post-war period in Japan.
The purpose of this study is to explain the characteristics of air passenger flows in Japan based on aggregation and micro data. Especially, studies on flows of air passengers based on micro data should be encouraged because individual behavior is regarded as important in transportation geography. The log-linear model is employed as the method of this analysis, because it is said that the log-linear model is an extremely useful method to illustrate the connection between departure and arrival. Results of this paper are summarized as follows. Firstly, most air passengers move to and from Haneda or Osaka airports. Though it has been pointed out in previous studies that airlines expand from Haneda and Osaka airports as centers, the reason for this is that airlines with many air passengers connect Haneda or Osaka airports with other airports. Airlines with fewer air passengers connect Chitose, Kagoshima or Naha with islands near these airports, or connect between airports in the same region. Secondly, after Japan was divided into the ten regions, the log-linear, model was applied to air passenger flows between these regions. One result is that, for air passenger movement between regions, there are the following cases: one is the case where there are flows between two regions where the same volume of residents is generated in each region, the other is that there are flows in which greater volumes of residents are generated in one region than in other regions. The volume of flows which is generated and absorbed in the Kanto region is as expected, but there are many flows among the other regions which are greater or less in volume than expected. Thirdly, a further result is that business passengers dominate to a great extent on most air passenger flows moving to the Kanto, Chukyo and Kinki regions, In general, there is a tendency for business passengers to dominate on flows moving short distances and leisure passengers to dominate on flows moving long distances. From a national viewpoint, in regions where the pivotal control functions are concentrated, such as the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, the Chukyo area and the Kinki area, many business passengers are generated and absorbed, while in zones surrounding these regions, most of the air passengers who move to and from the Metropolitan Area, the Chukyo area and the Kinki area travel because of business, and passengers for leisure are dominant over air passenger flows connected with other regions. This trend is also observed for passenger flows by other transport modes.
The impact of transnational corporations on developing countries is particularly evident in agriculture and the food industry that is linked with it. These corporations have access to different markets, for different kinds of products; and to new technologies, incorporating different kinds of inputs, such as machinery, fertilizers and herbicides. They influence the prices of both agricultural products and their inputs, control the supply of investment capital and agricultural infrastructure, and influence government policies about trade and investment. In Mexico the ‘transnationalization’ of agriculture includes both the transformation of the food industry and the impacts on agricultural production areas. The former can be studied at the national scale, on a sector by sector basis, including livestock, cereals and oilseeds, and fruit and vegetables. Each agricultural sector is linked with other industries which process and market the products or provide specialized inputs. The transnationalization of a rural area is examined in a case study of Bajio in the State of Guanajuato. Directly (with their own production) or indirectly (providing markets for local producers), the transnationals have shifted agricultural production away from basic grains such as corn, toward cereals and oilseeds and fruit and vegetables; integrating the region into a national and international food system.
The purposes of this paper are to clarify the roles and characteristics of sogo shosha investment and to explore the locations of their economic activities in Canada. Japanese direct foreign investment (DFI) in Canada has been relatively moderate in size while still significant in its impact. Since mature Japanese manufacturers, financial institutions and real estate companies made large investments during the 1980's, the proportion of sogo shosha investment in the total Japanese investment in Canada declined relatively. The expansion and diversification of Japanese DFI in Canada in the last decade stemmed from the changes in investment climate of the host country and the appreciation of yen. Sogo shosha, or the nine largest Japanese general trading companies, have been the chief promoters of Japanese trade and major vehicles for carrying out Japanese overseas investment during the postwar period. Sogo shosha's investment in Canada has focused on the three major sectors; commerce, natural resource development and manufacturing. Investment in commerce resulted in establishing their wholly-owned trading subsidiaries and marketing companies. Sogo shosha participate in natural resource development projects and manufacturing joint ventures with minority equity shares and long-term purchasing contracts. Thus, the primary purpose of sogo shosha investment is to enhance their trading activities, and the leverage is enormous despite their relatively small amount of investment. Sogo shosha investment is considered a unique prototype of Japanese DFI. Sogo shosha first emerged in the Canadian economic arena in 1954 after World War II. With the establishment of their wholly-owned trading subsidiaries which are often subordinate to the American counterparts, sogo shosha located their offices in the four strategic cities. Their locational preferences are complex. Nonetheless, the recent relocation of sogo shosha headquarters to Toronto corresponds to its dominance in the Canadian urban industrial hierarchy. The locational preference of Vancouver over Montreal is a special feature of the Japanese trading companies.
First, general trends of rice yield and production and changes of air temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours in Japan during the last 100 years are described. In yield, three periods can generally be recognized: Period 1, from the end of the 19th century to about 1915, Period 2, from about 1915 to about 1945, the end or just few years after the 2 nd World War, and Period 3, after the end of the 2 nd World War. Secondly, fluctuation of climatic conditions and its effects on the paddy rice yield during the last 104 years were studied statistically in order to evaluate the different impacts according to period. By applying the principal component analysis method, their distributions, periodicities and relations to monthly mean air temperature, monthly total precipitation, and monthly total sunshine hours were studied. The first component has a significant correlation to all three climatic elements in July, and air temperature and sunshine hours in August and precipitation and sunshine hours in September. In the second part of this study, we classify the 104 years into three periods according to interannual changes of paddy rice yield. For these three periods, the general trends and fluctuations are described and the relationship between the yield and climatic elements are analyzed for five regions respectively.