Based on the data on 11, 470 household heads and spouses in a national survey, this paper studies the selective effects of marriage migrations on five types of prefectures: (1) metropolitan core, (2) suburban, (3) regional growth pole, (4) peripheral non-kaso, and (5) peripheral kaso prefectures. The selective effects are examined in terms of five personal factors: sex, nativity, education, period of marriage, and sibling status. High Lights. Metropolitan core type was a minor net loser of male migrants and a major net gainer of female migrants. Primary and onward migrations were much more important than return migrations so that marriage migrations increased the non-native's share of the population of every type of prefectures. Marriage migrations resulted in further deterioration of the quality of human capital in peripheral prefectures. Thee transition from high to moderate economic growth in the early 1970's was accompanied by sharp reversals in the net transfers of marriage migrants in metropolitan cores and regional growth poles in opposite directions. The net migration patterns of surplus and essential siblings had the same direction, although the former was more influential than the latter.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate women's participation in the labour force in urbanized and non-urbanized areas of Japan through the last three decades and to determine the factors affecting regional variation of the women's participation rate in 1985. In 1955, the ratio of working persons (R. W. P.) in urbanized areas was much lower than that in non-urbanized areas, but in 1985 the R. W. P. in the two areas converged and their profiles by age group showed rather similar patterns. This is caused by the dramatic increase of female workers of middle age in urbanized areas and the heightened enrollment rate for middle school and university. Many of the increased number of female workers are employed on a temporary or part-time basis. A multiple regression analysis applied to the regional labour force participation rate (L. F. P. R.) by age group in 1985 indicates that the ratio of farming households out of the total number of households is the most important variable for 25-64 age groups to explain the regional variation of L. F. P. R, but no conspicuous factors are found for the 15-24 age group.
Humic properties imparted to Andisols during pedogenesis are resistant to diagenetic alter-ation and are preserved in stable enough form to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of the Holocene. Success in the reconstruction of paleoenvironment from soil evidence depends on the field area chosen. By investigating four volcanic areas in Japan, we examined the altitudinal distribution of two soil attributes, humus accumulation and Pg absorption of humic acid, and their regularity to clarify the ‘promising area’ for paleoenvironment study by pedological approach. Phytolith composition was also examined to discuss the pedogenetic biological influence on humus properties of Andisols.
The typical tropical geo-ecosystems in Brazilian Northeast or Nordeste are characterized by: 1) the Mar de Morros on deeply weathered crystalline rocks under the humid climate; 2) the Tabuleiros, consisting of low sedimentary upland (tabuleiros) under the humid climate; and 3) the Pediplain, being an undulating erosional plain covered by thorn bush, called caatinga, under the semi-arid climate. The characteristic degradation processes accompanied by the destruction of vegetation cover in each geo-ecosystem are: laterization or formation of a lateritic crust in the red-yellow latosol on the slopes of rounded hills, formation of white sand among the red-yellow podzolic soil on the tabuleiros, and the erosion of the originally thin non-calcic brown soil resulting in extensive bare lands. The formation of extremely infertile white sand on tabuleiros, predominately composed of quartz sand, is one of the most characteristic degradation processes in the humid tropics. The white sand is the result of shallow, acid groundwater action maintained or flowing over the shallow-lying hardpan formed by the precipitation of iron and aluminum oxides from subsurface water. Considering the fact that, on sandy soils like the ones on tabuleiros, deforestation decreases evapotranspiration and increases soil water, humans are believed to accelerate the process of white sand formation, for the increased subsurface water and elevated water table should favour the formation of such shallow hardpan and white sand.
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (HDP) jointly established CPPC-LUCC, or Core Project Planning Committee for the Land Use/Cover Change Programme, in early 1993. CPPC is expected to issue its proposal for LUCC in autumn 1994, and a number of LUCC projects will be launched in 1995 throughout the world. Japan is expected to play an important role in LUCC. It is important for Japan to present its own research plan for LUCC-Japan without delay. Although the CPPC's elaboration of the LUCC plan is thorough, it nevertheless has drawbacks and biases. A critical review of formal and informal documents related to LUCC has revealed some problems, including the following: a) CPPC is strongly conditioned by the existing IGBP, and as a result it fails to fully incorporate the “human dimension” in LUCC. b) CPPC does not seem to appreciate land use/cover as an important element of the human environment in its own right. c) The value and the role of models are overstated, and the study of actual situations and dynamics of land use/cover change is conceived relatively lightly. d) The compilation and analyses of historical data and information are important but difficult parts of LUCC, but CPPC fails to present a sound operational strategy for them. e) Guidelines for national projects, international research networks etc. are not yet clear. It is important for Japan not only to ask CPPC to elaborate the above points, but to make its own research plan that can lead to the success of LUCC-Japan. Japan should define East Asia, including Japan, as a region of primary importance, and pursue intensive study of land use/cover change, including field surveys, database compilation and analyses, and modelling. The Circum-Pacific region should be defined as the “Associated Region”, where a range of coordinated studies are carried out as to international relations and land use/cover change.