The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between change of Diabetes Mellitus（DM）patients’ blood sugar conditions（HbA1C）and patients’ illness experiences. For this purpose, a questionnaire investigation（by Cornell Medical Index and original questionnaire for subjective illness experiences）was performed seventy seven type II DM patients（43 men, 34 women）. The difference of HbA1C between the time of investigation and one year ago was an index of the changes of HbA1C. As the results, in male participants, changes of HbA1C negatively correlated with subjective sense of stability of the disease condition. Otherwise, in female, the significant negative correlation between the changes of HbA1C and anxiety was found. In spite of increasing HbA1C, it was found participants felt illness condition was good. And, we also analyzed 24 DM patients who were seen remarkable changes of HbA1C. As this results, in male participants, HbA1C decreased group（DG）was significantly higher in “awareness for illness” and “active coping with illness by own way” than HbA1c increased group（IG）. In female, as contrasted with male, IG was higher in “awareness for illness” and “active coping with illness by own way” than DG. So, illness experience with diabetic self care was different between male and female participants. It was subjective sense of illness stability（in male）and, anxiety（in female）affected of the effects of diabetic self-care.
Japan and China are close neighbors geographically, and have similar cultures, but are quite different socio-economically. There have been few comparative studies of the two countries. The purpose of this study was to compare daily lifestyle between Japanese and Chinese middle-aged adults. The subjects were 1420 (222 Japanese males and 522 females, 235 Chinese males and 441 females middle-aged and older adults), aged over age 40-70. The comparative study included a 12 part questionnaire which surveyed each person's lifestyles, daily habits, and health awareness; a six item of physical fitness; and a one week pedometer count to measure each person's daily activity.
The main results can be summarized as follows:
1. Both Chinese height and weight were significantly greater than that of the Japanese, and their body fat were higher as well.
2. In diet, Japanese rated healthier in intake of meats and fish, vegetables and fruit, and milk and dairy products.
3. Most Japanese expressed the opinion that a little alcohol was not harmful to one's health while any amount of smoking was harmful.
4. It has been observed that Japanese have a greater knowledge and understanding of modern medicine and they attempt to incorporate that knowledge in their daily lives in order to improve their health, while Chinese on the other hand, base their decisions regarding health on long-standing traditions and customs rather than on medical knowledge.
Muscle fibers are larger than regular cells. This large size is unfavorable in the transfer of nutrients and waste because the surface area per unit volume in the cell decreases as the volume of the cell increases. Therefore, capillaries around the muscle fibers play an important role. In the process of muscle regeneration, nutrients and chemical substances are necessary for proliferation and differentiation. This report aims to clarify the changes in capillaries during the early regeneration of skeletal muscle and to establish simple and clear regeneration stages of skeletal muscle according to capillary changes.
Mouse gastrocnemius muscle was injured with an 18G needle through the skin as an intramuscular injection without drugs. Paraffin sections were made over time after the injury and alkaline phosphatase staining was executed to detect the capillaries in the damaged tissue.
Alkaline phosphatase-positive structures, endothelial cells of the capillary, were identified in the damaged tissue 1 hour and 8 hours after injury. However, these structures were not identified 24 hours after injury. Two days after injury, alkaline phosphatase-positive cells were identified again. After this, the alkaline phosphatase-positive region increased over time. It seems that the disappearance of capillaries at 24 hours after injury is the degradation of the capillaries, and the capillaries appearing again 2 days after injury are newly grown. Depending on the capillary changes, we established that the regeneration of skeletal muscle is composed of 4 stages.
These stages provide a useful standard for analyzing the regeneration process in skeletal muscle.