BIOPHILIA
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Biophilia Workshop - IBRC 2018 Proceedings
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Editorial
  • Executive Committee of Workshop BIOPHILIA 2018, ORGANIZING COMMITTEE o ...
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages i-iii
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    (Biophilia Workshop Latvia 2018 and the 15th International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference)Hosted by;International Biophilia Rehabilitation AcademyThe Social Integration State Agency of LatviaUniversity "G.d'Annunzio"-Chieti-Pescara, ItalyBiophilia Rehabilitation Academy of Japan Biophilia Workshop IBRC 2018 - Latvia"Restructuring of Rehabilitation Medicine"Preparation for the Randomized controlled trial of the Passive exercise vs the Motivative exerciseJune 26, 2018Rehabilitation department of The Social Integration State Agency in Jurmala, Latvia The 15th International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference (IBRC 2018)REHABILITATION MEDICINE TO THE SUPER-AGED SOCIETYDATE: June 28-29, 2018 "Gabriele d'Annunzio" University, Chieti-Pescara, ItalyThe Italian Congress provided to the participants CME (Continuos Medicine Education) credits to the health care professionists and Medical Doctor.

    Chairperson of IBRC 2018 Professor Raoul Saggini MD.PhD. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medical “Gabriele d’Annunzio” University

    Professor Camillo Di Giulio, Department of Neuroscience Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti, Italy

    Prof. (Taki) Takizawa, Shigeo, (Founder / Inventor and President, International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy) Biophilia Institute, The Designated and Registered Institute by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

    Executive Committee of Workshop BIOPHILIA 2018

    TAKIZAWA, Taki Shigeo

    Jana Migliniece

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Message for Biophilia Workshop 2018
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 1-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have been describing the necessity for the RCT study between the motivative exercise substituted the passive exercise versus the passive exercise by the physiotherapist and tried to find the facilities of the joint research implementation for it since 2015 on our website. We are looking forward to implementing it. It is our pleasure to implement the RCT in Latvia. I will visit there in June 2018, and the details will be decided.

    We obtained the concurrence with the editorial-board meeting (management organization of a scientific issue of IBRA) it as to be the workshop 2018 Riga - IBRC2018. Since we have published the detail, please take a look. First of all, I express my gratitude for Dr. Jana Migliniece, the Director of the agency Mrs. Ilona Jursevska and the Head of the rehabilitation department Mrs. Ludmila Jefimova to give the chance to implement the RCT and to hold this meeting Biophilia workshop in Riga IBRC 2018. Moreover, I express my gratitude for Prof. Gunta Ancane, Head of the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RSU, Assoc. Prof. Signe Tomsone, Faculty of Rehabilitation, RSU, Dr. Anda Nulle, Chair of the Board National Rehabilitation center “Vaivari”, Latvia, President of Latvian Association of Rehabilitation, and Prof. Gelu Omose, Physicians and PhD/ Post-Graduate Tutor - at the (State) University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Bucharest, Romania, President of the Romanian Society for NeuroRehabilitation, all of who had given me the opportunity to hold Biophilia workshop in Riga 2017.

    We implemented the contrast research as the References of the RCT study;

    the conduct of beginning and ex-post evaluation data comparison for the facility which introduces the Takizawa method into the daily rehabilitation medical treatment;

    2 times of the supplementary examination;

    the RCT study of the Takizawa method versus the current rehabilitation medical treatment as follows; the comparative study of the current rehabilitation medical treatment versus the treatment adding a motivative exercise to it;

    the RCT and comparison study of the Cerebral Function of Motivative Exercise vs. Passive Exercise.

    The comparison research of the articular contracture of the motivative exercise introduction before and after introduction.

    It was verified that the rehabilitation medical treatment which we promote, by the compared with the current rehabilitation medical treatment was effective.

    Moreover, all of those researches were done by the public grants. We showed those in the History of the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy in this proceedings.

    I have thought for years that I would like to have the conference entitled BIOPHILIA in Riga. The Napoleon wave had not smashed people in Riga, and then it made the foundation of the modern society with the freedom and equality. I reprinted the presentation of Workshop Biophilia in Riga 2017.

    It is my great pleasure to state that we can take an oath for our research becoming an advance party who cultivates the future of the human beings gained longevity and realizes the “Revolution of Hope, especially based on a foundation of cerebral plasticity.”

    Thank you!!

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  • Toshiyuki Tanaka
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 2-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Dear colleagues,

    It is a great pleasure to launch “Rehabilitation department of the Social Integration State Agency” in Riga, Latvia, on June 26, 2018, with International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (IBRA).

    I am Toshiyuki Tanaka, chairperson of Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy in Japan. I am part of the Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University, which is a long-established private institution founded in Japan in 1858 by Yukichi Fukuzawa. Keio University is well known to researchers worldwide for the students and professors who produce high-quality research. My research field is pattern measurement, including medical image processing and computer-aided diagnosis.

    The number of patients has increased in many countries, in step with the aging of the population. Medical devices such as fMRI, fNIRS, and X-ray CT become widely used to support the work of doctors. Although the precision of diagnosis has risen markedly, it seems that the burdens on doctors have not lessened. To reduce these burdens, we are developing a diagnosis support system using medical image processing.

    We have promoted the construction of a new rehabilitation system that one physical therapist treats several patients with easy devices, which was called “Takizawa method”.

    The international Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (IBRA), which is a sisterhood institute of BRA in Japan, has worldwide revolved the promotion of new rehabilitation system.

    In consequence, IBRA has achieved the harmonious relationship with Poland, Italy, Romania, and so on. In the last year, we have held the Workshop Biophilia 2017 in Riga, Latvia. And we made a statement about our approach for rehabilitation and the necessity of randomized control test (RCT). I am very grad that IBRA has a partnership with team of Latvia from this year, and will perform RCT with the team of Latvia. Through the RCT of our proposed system, we hope that the meeting of this year will provide the opportunity to introduce important innovations and blossom in the field of the rehabilitation in Latvia and Japan.

    Thank you!

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Workshop source material
Workshop source material based on the articles to invite you to the study
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 3-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Our studies have been proceeded to recognize that RCT is required as a result. We have tried to hold the meeting of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) between Motivative Exercise by oneself and Passive Exercise by a physical therapist about the restructuring of the rehabilitation medicine. Fortunately, the opportunity will be made, and RCT will be implemented in Riga by the international study with the Rehabilitation department of the Social Integration State Agency, Latvia since preparation through the workshop 2017 in Riga held last year.

    Let join our study; the supplementary examination is important for every study.

    We welcome your participation if possible. Participation is free. And also we are glad to hold the meeting at your place for showing the result of our previous endeavor and the details of enforcement if you want.

    The author introduces you to the previous studies on the difference between the Motivative Exercise Versus the Passive ROM Exercise, and the Takizawa method versus the current rehabilitation medical treatment, moreover the change of contractures.

    We implemented;

    i) the randomized controlled trial (hereafter RCT) of the Takizawa method versus the current rehabilitation medical treatment at the long-term nursing home1);

    ii) the Conduct of Begining and Ex-post Evaluation data comparison for the facility which introduces the Takizawa method into the daily rehabilitation medical treatment2);

    iii) the RCT of the cerebral function of motivative exercise to passive exercise3),4).

    Each study result showed the Takizawa method or the motivative Exercise the significantly effective.

    Moreover, we implemented the research of the change of contracture5). The motivative Exercise seemed to have made improvements on the contractures.

    We are planning to implement the RCT together with the Social Integration State Agency, Latvia, and to make an agreement a contract in the visit, 26 June 2018.

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The 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society (1998 - 2000)
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 4-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Orthopedic doctors and an author published an article of the specific and kinetic rehabilitation method in the journal of the Japanese Clinical Orthopaedic Association meeting for the future1). We clarified that 30% of the elderly who were bedridden by sequela of fracture and/or cerebrovascular disorder the became a walk possible in the paper. It is a fact whose 59 persons' walk was attained from the 193 bedridden elderly. It means that 30% of them became a walk possible, as a result of performing Takizawa Method rehabilitation. The subjects were unable to walk at the time of hospitalized; the oldest was 99 years old, youngest was 47 years old, and the average age was 81 years old, and 137 women and 56 men.

    The 126 patients could train at the rehabilitation training room, and 67 did bedside training. 59 subjects re-acquired walking and itemized; 9 patients could walk independently, 7 could do crutch walking, 3 could do with a four wheels’ walker, 11 could do with a four wheels’ walker with sleds, and 29 could do in parallel bars. If this is applied to the 2.3 million bedridden elderly currently assumed in 2025, the total of the re-acquired walking will amount to 690,000.

    We organized the 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society and enforced research in order to continue an independent life even if there was a sequela of fracture or cerebrovascular disorder, to get for people an old age in comfort, and to enable them to live richly based on this fact in the aged society.

    The total population of Japan will start to decrease in 2007, and the 65 or older elderly will be one of four people in 2020. The 4 million children aged 14 and lower will decrease from the present and will be the half of the number of elderly. The study group of the Economic Planning Agency (that time) predicted that national burden rate went up from 35.8% of the present to 51.1% after 30 years in 2025. There is much other pessimistic prediction of the national income 3/4 disappearing, and they advocated that the existing systems, such as finances and a pension collapse if it is neglected without changing the present structure.

    We tried to develop devices which can enforce the test for scientific and medical assessment and proposed a field test to clarify the outline of the evaluation for every case in order to prevent the Aging Crisis.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 5-
    Published: May 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    What is what walks by four legs, two legs, and three legs? It is human. This Sphinx's question is circulated widely. People certainly get older, and many have gait disorder by aging. It is difficult for such people to live without a cane. The way of thinking of Sphinx's question is established as human beings' life culture for ages.

    So the walker currently using was hard to use at Japanese home, it was not spread to use there.

    They did not use a walker which can be used at any required time, and a care worker's support was not obtained, either, then the bedridden elderly by fracture increase gradually in number. Even if one can be standing position and walk by rehabilitation training,

    Many of them became bedridden with reducing an ADL level in many cases, because they cannot perform a durations of training, and do not walk for fear of a fall since there is no care of unassisted walking in the recuperation at home after discharged hospital.

    The bedridden elderly by fracture is over an average of 20%.

    The development of four-wheel walker with sleds (this walker) was performed as there were the possibilities to protect many elderly's walks and to enhance the ability of their independent living.

    The clinical trial was done by many university hospitals such as the Tokyo University hospital(hereafter UH) Keio UH., Kitasato UH., St. Marianna UH., Tokai UH., and Yokohama City UH., etc. by the support of NEDO Grant1), and the development was proved effective.

    The degrading of the ADL level was not shown about 4 of the femur neck fracture patient, and 2 of the degenerative malum coxae of both sides patient in the clinical trial for example.

    We can presume that there are the expenditures cut effect, in the case of assuming that the half user became walking independently by the result of the study. The outcome could be presumed that the effect of a fiscal year would be 420 billion yen to the Japanese finances including local public finance in 1993, in the case of assuming that the half user became walk independently. (180,000 people, half numbers of bedridden by fracture times 4,680 thousand yen per the cost of one people).

    We have strived to diffuse a walker with sled in order to be no uneasiness bedridden in many elderly and to realize their precious, full longevity life by using it as a walk supportive device at Japanese home. Furthermore, we make an effort to increase a clinical trial example. We would like to break down the common sense concerning human beings' life culture for ages. It has continued since the ancient times of the Greek myth symbolized by the Sphinx. Moreover, we would like to establish the new myth about Sphinx’ question that

    “what is what walks by four legs, two legs, three legs, and six legs? The answer is a human.”

    The author is convinced that the new lifestyle of living on 6 legs, such establishment of new life culture, can lead the society a life calmly richly even if many people who have the much uneasiness of old age by low birthrate and longevity, add a year in comfort.

    As a result of nursing-care-insurance introduction in Japan, the economic rationality of re-acquired walking was lost, and we heard that there was no sales performance after nursing-care-insurance introduction.

    “Do you think that there are some problems? Yes, I do.”

    We restart this matter after the Japanese nursing care insurance breakdown.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 6-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The leg disabled person in hemiparesis of a cerebrovascular disorder sequela, by a fracture, etc. has aimed at the improvement of a physical condition by passive exercise by a physiotherapist. However, the human resources of a physiotherapist were confined. As a result, patients developed contracture and become bedridden in many cases with difficulty in walking.

    We are advancing research in order to change this situation. The author presented the device development for the rehabilitation method configuration integrated at CSUN conference in U.S. Los Angeles in March 2000 to the world1). We did it in order to clarify the concept which produced its effect not only the research presentation centering on a previous clinical result. The motivative exercise and Takizawa rehabilitation Method (Method) using a development device realized the improvement from an impairment medical condition. Rehabiliaid Limited Company (the present Biophilia Institute) developed a cushion, the upper-limbs functional training machine, the leg functional training device, the soft leg prosthetic brace, and the walker with new four-wheel with sleds. Thus, the author presented the development of rehabilitation devices which has high validity in an improvement of a physical condition there.

    We clarified that Takizawa method with using configuration integrated devices was a new concept and a new rehabilitation method there. A patient train the leg with disabilities by oneself with own unaffected leg using devices developed, Namely, guide of the unaffected leg in which other functions remain, makes it passive exercise by oneself.

    The author labeled the training by using developed devices the motivative exercise. In the motivative exercise, a patient train the leg with disabilities by oneself with own unaffected leg using devices developed, namely, guide of the unaffected leg in which functions remain, makes a disability leg passive exercise by oneself. Takizawa method is an implementation system of a Motivative exercise in aged disability person.

    We showed points when advancing Takizawa method rehabilitation;

    i) do not make a patient strain oneself, ii) do commensurate exercise with the condition and ability at the time of training, iii) use devices at a training room, iv) do exercise without to use a rehabilitation matt,

    v) do exercise in a sitting position or a standing position.

    The author reported the point and the situation of implementation.

    Although 2.3 million bedridden elderlies of 5.2 million elderlies requiring nursing care are predicted to be bedridden, there is a possibility of 30% of them in everyday life independence. Since elderly live independent oneself even if there are disabilities will be the only way make the 21st century, aged society is the society filled with hope, the 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society advance efforts to realize it.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 7-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    An elderly population aged 65 and over was 21 million people in the 2000 year’s edition of the aged society white paper on 1 October 1999, and the rate of them was 16%. Improvement in medical treatment and hygiene and an improvement of a living environment brought Japanese people the best longevity in the world. Whenever the ratio of the elderly to population newly estimates, it has increased. The income of an elderly people household and storage are substantial.

    On the other hand, the elderly who received the care needs assessment (by Japanese regulation) on July 25 were announced as 2.8 million people. Although the elderly who need care in 2025 considered in the Ministry of Health and Welfare prediction in January 1997 showed 5.2million people, it will be changed into an increasing number at the case of keeping in the present condition.

    The cerebrovascular disease was the first of the cause of death once. At present, it was halved as compared with the 1960s.

    If it estimates from statistics, about 80,000 people become the elderly people who need the care which newly has a sequela of cerebrovascular disorder every year. If it was the former, it meant becoming bedridden gradually according to the sequela of cerebrovascular disorder.

    Longevity was not only growing older happily healthily. Because longevity was allowed, it might people become bedridden from requiring care and dies, and it would bring the merciless and hard struggle for several years until. The brightness of life fades, and a majority of people die by drowning in suffering. (There was a big accident that many people drowned at the river in Japan at that time.)

    We formed the 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society and studied items to summarize an enforcement situation and effects of the special elderly hospital continuously in order to change this state. Moreover, we clarified the feature of introduced and used devices and the improved situation of indoor move capability.

    We advance medical verification of the implementation of the motivative exercise by the Takizawa rehabilitation method and expend effort to the elucidation of the mechanism.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 8-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We describe the development method and application development of rollator (Walker) as an auxiliary device. The establishment of the life stage means living with the 6 leg walk adding to the Sphinx’ question of people’s living.

    There were reports of development with NEDO Grant until now at a large number. They were development reports of the new goods based on a new idea, the safety at the time of using, the user-friendliness from a utilizer, etc.

    Henry Ford has improved the car which was a domain of the hobby of privileged people, such as an aristocrat, as a general transportation device and the means of transportation of cargo, and improved the quality of the life of human beings ago. This is an example of method development or usage development.

    It has been said that a walker is not helpful to rehabilitation till today (in 2000) in Japan. It was not effective compared with the use in a foreign country in the Japanese residence where the level difference of a bump as an entrance is specific, either. The walker also might be called a stand to place personal belongings and a clothes pole at home after leaving the hospital. There were several kinds in a walker, and there was a problem, respectively; a four-point type was difficult to walk freely, a rollator was large then it was hard to use at a narrow place and slid on it too much, and user fell, and it caused a fracture. Moreover, there was not any walker of bigness good to use indoors enable to exceed a level difference (a bump as an entrance) until now (in 2000). Furthermore, there was a little recommendation of positive use even with the textbook concerning physiotherapy related to use at the spot of rehabilitation.

    We continued the proposal to the independent living by using a walker. It was not only device development but method development of changing a lifestyle by using, acquires the move capability in a house, and enable to live independently, namely, the expansion of a life stage.

    In other words, it is the development project of social reformation taking into consideration. It was an important usage development that enabled to compare social reformation by the car of Ford which allowed 100 - 300 km distance movement with independent living by acquiring independence of toileting as freedom of 1 - 10 meters’ move in the home.

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Biophilia rehabilitation Academy (2002 - 2005)
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 9-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We implemented research of “surveillance study for independence and Improvement in ADL of the fracture of the femur patient by a welfare device” by the Association for Technical Aids in 2000” and “Research investigation about the upper-limbs training combined with lift device development for Motivative exercise, Small and Medium Enterprise Corporation, 2001”. Through those study by the national grants, the 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society was born again as the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (hereafter BRA). We explore the mechanism, spread the new rehabilitation method, and enable them to do by anyone who learned it.

    The purpose of the BRA is;

    i) to study a new rehabilitation method in order to live for the disabled elderly independently and the physical ability improved by overcoming impairment,

    ii) to explore the mechanism, to spread the new rehabilitation method, and to enable them to do by anyone who learned it, and

    iii) to study the influence on the social economy by independence acquirement for them. The source of biophilia which we used is preface of the Revolution of Hope which U.S. philosopher Erich Fromm wrote.

    The preface of a source is shown below;

    Appealing to the love for life (biophilia) that still exists in many of us.

    Only through full awareness of the danger to life can this potential be mobilized for action capable of bringing about drastic changes in our way of organizing society.

    Not that the author optimistic about the chances of success; but he believes that one cannot think in terms of percentages or probabilities as long as there is a real possibility even a slight one that life will prevail.

    The predecessor of BRA, the 21st Century Rehabilitation Research Society studied to confirm the fact as a medical fact that the 30% of bedridden elderly became a walk possible, as a result of performing Takizawa Method rehabilitation. Japanese have been promoted and allowed to live on the others' care and to be admitted to a hospital if one needed care due to a cerebrovascular disorder, fracture and/or else by their kindness. The Japanese pension system of the current disbursement approach seems to be a pyramid investment organization. If the newer members increase in number, the earlier members gain more money.

    The Baby boomers increased in the population of workers’ number and was a kind of the newer members for paying.

    If the public pension maintains the present system, it would be bankrupted by increasing old baby boomers who receive money in number and descendants as newer members decrease in number by the lower birthrate. The increase in care related people and in the medical expenses by aging (social security expenditure 2025 prediction 207 trillion yen/216 trillion-yen gross pay in whole Japan) would hit baby boomers directly, and it becomes impossible and to live peacefully in Japanese tenderness like the former lifestyle.

    Therefore, we consider that "the heart and will which he continues hope to live as human just when it becomes a disabled person" are important. The author titled our study group "biophilia" which represented it and got all the members’ approval.

    We introduced the studies of the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy, which was evolved from this way in 2002.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 10-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The depressive psychosis from worry about life is mentioned as one of the reasons the suicide exceeded 30,000 continuations for four years in Japan. Probably, they have thought "there are not good affairs to grow older" by the anxiety as to employment, a pension, and medical insurance.

    It becomes a force which removes people's uneasiness that each people recognize the following matter “they can live independently and a good life even if they acquire disabilities, and continue philanthropy by IT (information technology) even if somewhat physically handicapped.” Moreover, it also becomes a source of the volition which we keep living with dignity as a human.

    We aimed at realizing the following items, according to an implementation of the motivative exercise with

    Takizawa method as;

    i) contributing to the improvement in the welfare of the stability of the life of the human beings and the Japanese who acquired longevity beings based on previous research,

    ii) realizing the society where they can live independently from care reliance

    iii) extending the healthy life expectancy of the human beings living longevity at the same time,

    iv) establishing dignity even if one was a disability elderly, and

    v) study of the Biophilia Rehabilitation usable home care (home health care, home nursing care, and meal tutorship).

    Moreover, we determined the purpose to realize the Biophilia for the person keeping "the heart and will which they keep one's hope up to live as the human being just when they became a disabled person and will" to a deed of BRJ.

    Takizawa method is a kinetic rehabilitation system and an implementation system by the seating position posture to the disabled person.

    The motivative exercise is a passive exercise of an affected side leg by the unaffected side priority with using the devices developed.

    There is the atmosphere that those who become advanced age and disability is not recognized as a legitimate member of a community including a family now. The numerousness of entering desire of the institution/hospitalization shows the reaction of such a view to an advanced age disabled person.

    We think that the improvement of activities of daily living is possible after developing the cerebrovascular disorder disability and/or femoral neck fracture can live indecently for the individual through the activities of BRJ. Moreover, we think that the author would like to establish the society "in which an individual acquires the independent living and society accepts a disabled person as a legitimate member."

    We believe our research enables to establish the new civilization not to make for the increase in the elderly a negative factor. Keeping the national characteristic of Japanese kindness, but not depending on it, the imminent Aging Crises will be a chance to switch to a civilized society.

    Independent citizens, composed of the super-aging population of society, will ride semi-civilization, which Fukuzawa feared. It is the chance to prevail on one side of ongoing Japanese culture since the Edo Period.

    We will continue to research. Moreover, we believe that it enables the establishment of the new civilized society, which consists of the new life culture, and doesn't cause increases in the elderly a negative factor. Although our research has attained to not only a factual check but the elucidation of the cause, an elucidation requires the further research.

    Each of us gathered, and we organized NPO. We wait for and expect this reader's opinion to establish it and welcome your participation in NPO for the spread for independent living of himself and a family.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 11-12
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy set forth the title as shown and co-hosted the first International Conference with the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands’ (CNMI) government with me a conference chair. There were about 150 participants from the United States and neighboring countries such as the Republic of Palau.

    The author presented the actual condition of our research and the theory of civilization at the keynote lecture. The contents of our study are clarified in “Possibility of the biophilia rehabilitation.”

    The theory of civilization has to be considered because of the following idea; it is necessary to solve the problems accompanying the coming demographic transition including great subjects, such as philosophy, industrial environment, a policy, etc. which makes possible for the baby boomers who became advanced age to contribute to the society.

    The research of the rehabilitation was published at the e-journal of Japan Science and Technology Corporation (State Organization) by five articles from January 31, 2003. The research progress was clarified in this keynote lecture.

    The Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHLW) set the population ratio of the elderly aged 65 and over in 2025 to 1 to 5 by the estimate of population in 1975, and introduced the silver city plan.

    The author presented own motivation for the study as follows;

    i) became the Fujisawa municipal assemblyman in 1979,

    ii) expected the arrival of the aged society by baby boomers' aging,

    iii) estimated the population dynamics by a computer which new those days, and

    iv) proposed enforcement of the policy corresponding to it.

    The estimate of the elderly population ratio in Fujisawa in 2025 was presented to the local assembly the result 1 to 4 or more.

    Next, the author explained his related content and fact about the rehabilitation for making the aged society expected sustainable.

    The regulation of the Health and Medical Service for the Aged was introduced in 1987. The city functional training meeting under the regulation was established from April Chigasaki City in adjoining for the disabled elderly of being home in the same year. The Fujisawa City’s one was established by the coordination with a medical association and was established by accepting only the disabled elderly of a disuse sustentation term from October. The Fujisawa’s meeting was "a functional training meeting in which only those not recovering participate (impairment) " as a lawmaker understanding from the development.

    The physiotherapist, Kyoko Takizawa began service at the Fujisawa’s meeting. She rehabilitated the disabled elderly who were diagnosed impairment and was getting for them remarkable results as "those who found the improvement of condition, those who did the social (place of work) return, and those who hint suicide from disability came to tell hope." Many patients gained a walk from bedridden in the Nagaoka Bedridden Hospital by her rehabilitation around the same time.

    The effect was published already 2). Besides, Kyoko Takizawa had worked as the PT of the Fujisawa Citizen Hospital. She had performed rehabilitation of the same method collaborating with two helpers for 15,000 patients every year according to the operating report of the hospital.

    The author persuaded her that there was a necessity to admit that her performing a rehabilitation was a method.

    She (the author’s mother) had not understood it for a long time depending on " my hand is an incantatory hand since I do so that they can walk wholly."

    As the years go by, it was important for the author choosing to enforce the research than the future of a politician because the social cognition of a rehabilitation system was required to sustain the aged society. They were the reason and led to holding the first IBRC.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 13-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is an activity report of the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy.

    We held the 2nd annual International Conference in Windsor, Ontario, Canada on November 1, 2003.

    It was entitled as " the Independence from Care Reliance - Construction of a Sustainable Super-Aged Society –" and supported by the Windsor City Government, the California state university physical disability center, and Association for Technical Aids (Japan). We held an international conference and reported the latest result of research and future subject in order to contribute to the solutions in accordance with the arrival of an aged society.

    The elderly need independent living not to do with Care Reliance and to continue a contributive life into society in order to avoid the social disruption "Aging Crisis" by baby-boomers aging and the increase of the social security expenditure.

    The keynote lecture of the author was as follows.

    Aging progress in every country in the world, and especially Japan results in a super-aged society in the shortest period. The increase in the elderly and the advanced age disabled one bring about the increase of social security expenditure and make the burden by the next generation impossible. Moreover, we are apprehensive about that Aging Crisis which collapses a social system is brought about. In order to avoid it, it is necessary to reintegrate of the current life cycle of education, labor, and retirement, and to reunify the elderly who are increasing in number at the center of a productive life.

    It is a reason asked for construction of the new civilization as shown in the title “Establishment of a new civilization which does not make the increase in the elderly a negative factor, and holding the International

    Conference.”

    We have studied integrated domains, such as medicine, engineering, and social science, and am getting a certain amount of result to surmounted all manner of structural challenges and to build the sustainable society by the research result on the basis of the name of biophilia. The specific amount of result, which reported over 30% of bedridden inpatients re-acquired walking, was the fact from bedridden by our proposing rehabilitation method.

    At the 2nd IBRC, the Mayor of Windsor, Canada delivered a congratulatory address and his agent greeted there.

    The director of DD council in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) announced it to the all states bureau of United States. As the result of CNMI conference last year, there was an IBRC holding proposal for next year.

    The activity reports were done about the matters described in the proceedings.

    Please read the following one for details. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/ibr/2003/0/_contents/-char/ja

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 14-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We obtained the Longevity Social Welfare Grant of Welfare and Medical Service (WAM), State agency in 2005. In order to contribute to improvement in the life and welfare of the people, it is a study for making the disability person who is living at home raise own volition and rehabilitate by oneself. It is research for a study that the system construction of a core organization and home for rehabilitation service which can mention a high efficiency while both aim at practical cooperation, in order to aim at independent daily living not care reliance for the disabled elderly as much as possible.

    The following effects are expectable by the research;

    i) it is expected that the disabled elderly's walk/move independence and activities of daily living improve,

    ii) helps to spread the rehabilitation method which enables to require a physical action and activities of daily living,

    iii) enables to construct a safe and easy local rehabilitation network in the whole country, and

    iv) enables to reduce the social security expenditure since declining the level of care needed.

    The research is composed of a lecture meeting, collection of participants, a manual publication, distribution of the devices, and the report publication.

    Please read the detail of research1).

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The International Affairs Department of Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (2004- 2005)
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 15-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The 3rd International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference was held on September 16-18, 2004 in Manila. President Arroyo, Republic of the Philippines delivered a congratulatory address1) and her secretary greeted there.

    Ms. Venus Ilagan, the chairperson of the Disabled Peoples International (DPI), gave the keynote address. She said that it is important to overcome disability and to live independent living through her experience as disabled people.

    The word impairment shows the cause of disability. Although those who the disabled elderly, facilities of those, caregiver and family member as taking it for granted that lived bedridden because who was impairment, should make her advocacy a common understanding.

    The study of Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (BRA) was presented as follows;

    We study the new rehabilitation method which enables to improve the physical activity for the disabled elderly on his impairment and to live without becoming bedridden. We explore a reason by an approach from molecular genetics especially and try to spread it. Moreover, we enable it to implement by anybody who learned it to do not the specific person. We explore the influence on the social economy by independent living and a possibility to cut the related expenses in social security expenditure.

    We held the open workshop and the Japanese conference in the Tokyo elderly-people research and a welfare promotion foundation on August 7.

    The author was assigned chairman of the biophilia rehabilitation Academy’s International Affairs Department due to the founder and the inventor of this research, and the person in charge to hold 1-3 IBRC and substantial international activities by the members of BRA.

    The author set own aim on this research in 1987. There was no one understanding person, and he took seven years to obtain the understanding person in a family. It was happy for him that the International Affairs Department chairman was assigned.

    In order to advance transdisciplinary research of many domains by the question to the state of the current rehabilitation, the 21st-century rehabilitation study society was organized in 1996, and the 21st century came around, and renamed biophilia rehabilitation Academy from 2001.

    We introduce the approach and influence to the society. Please read the following proceeding shown in the reference for details.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 16-17
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Germany’s nursing care insurance which was carried out in 1995 preceded Japanese one done in 2000. According to the report of the federal Social Insurance Agency, nursing-care-insurance accounts will fall into a deficit in 1999, and ā deficit is expanded after that, and it is expected that the reserve (allowance) for securing mobility at the end of 2006 hits bottom. It was driven into the state where a radical reformation is not avoided after 10 years from a foundation.

    Japanese baby boomers born 8 million and 7 million or more are alive even now. It was said that a life expectancy becomes aged 90 and over in Japan by the US study. All the social welfare systems where do not predict the growth of a life expectancy would go to collapse. In the present estimate, the numbers of the elderly will be 31.8 million people and about 25% in 2015 (estimation of the National Institute of Population in 2005). It will increase more.

    It is important for the people to enable to live the disabled elderly indecently, to decrease a social security expenditure, and to live for all human beings comfortably in the unprecedented society in the situation of the inversion of an age pyramid.

    It is important to establish the new life culture by enabling the disabled elderly independence life.

    The idea which resulted from the described Japanese kindness written in “Possibility of the Biophilia Rehabilitation” in 2002 by Long-Term Care Insurance be a source of the following; It becomes profitable to care reliance and bedridden. Everything goes well by relying on care.

    We must convert the described Fukuzawa definition written in this edition in 2002 into the Independent citizens living society.

    We need the further research indeed to provide the measure is offered as "innovation of rehabilitation medicine" in order to make society sustainable without being over-dependent on to the next generation. Moreover, we need the restructuring of the social consciousness of people, and on the assumption not to hang a too heavy burden on the next generation.

    Rehabilitation medicine has a concept of “acceptance of disability” in a part of the primary purposes. It differs from the expected an extensive medicine of diagnosis, medical treatment, and prevention of the illness and injury, although a name called the medicine being entitled.

    On the other hand, we are expecting to establish the rehabilitation medicine and medical treatment which can re-acquire a physical activity although it does not result in a cure but improve the activity of the encephalic damaged area.

    The foundation of innovation of rehabilitation medicine is based on the fact1) and the following description;

    Many outpatients who joined at the functional training meeting “Re-acquired Walking is Possible” written in 1998 overcame disability and also returned to the workplace held in 1987.

    We started the study by the reasons following;

    i) the author who had been the Fujisawa city lawmaker noticed the unusual situation where "those who are never cured" overcome the disability and did the return to work, and

    ii) had recognized the necessity to propose “Takizawa Method rehabilitation" into society as a scientific system.

    The author as the International Affairs Department chairman and a holding person in charge stated that

    i) it is meaningful to overcome disabilities by "Innovation of rehabilitation medicine" for the people.

    ii) Moreover, it will be a relief of the human beings more than others at the situation of the inversion of an age pyramid on the biggest revolution of all time. This conference became the memorable beginning.

    We were doing four research2-5) by the grants towards a mechanism elucidation in 2005. Please read the proceedings6) shown in the reference for details.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 18-19
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Japanese nursing care insurance was established 5years ago, users of beginning had been 1.49 million people, the numbers of them in 2005 was 3.29 million, and the total cost was increasing quickly. Japan, where aging progresses as noticed above has a possibility of becoming a model in the world about the problem with the care.

    We held the 5th Australia International Conference on September 1, 2006, to realize the title. Yoshiyasu Takefuji, a professor of the environment information faculty of Keio University, said "we applied the physical phenomenon discovered newly, and he thinks them to use for society" as a chairperson of the 5th IBRC.

    They who even live in Northern Europe where made into the advanced region of welfare, wanted us to send the international conference poster by the next in Europe, by all means. We are strengthening the feelings that our research leads to the hope of people in the world who gained longevity.

    We are studying the rehabilitation medicine with the grants 1-5) from many sides to enable “overcame disability” from “acceptance of disability” though it does not result in a revivification to improve an encephalic damaged area. On the other hand, we are expecting to establish the rehabilitation medicine and medical treatment which can re-acquire a physical activity although it does not result in a cure but improve an activity of the encephalic damaged area.

    The stroke joint guideline committee (chairperson, Professor Yukito Shinohara, the neurology study of Tokai University) investigated and published the stroke cure guideline in 2004 for the following reasons;

    there was no stroke guideline established in our country,

    the medicines of European and American approved differed on the approved one in Japan,

    the development-of-symptoms rate and mortality rate of the cerebrovascular disorder disability were high, and

    there was a difference in a type of disease.

    The rehabilitation group leader, Professor Naoichi Chino, the rehabilitation medicine of Keio University also released results of an investigation. They disclosed that the validity of a function and the ability rating measuring method would be inquired itself because since a curative effect is judged by a function and ability rating on the rehabilitation medical treatment.

    They disclosed that they waited for the further future research because generally, validity cannot say enough from the field of evidence because many domains performed based on clinical experience are seen on the cure for apoplexy rehabilitation medicine and medical treatment, and training technique, etc.

    In 2009 editions, this expression is lost and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), etc. are recommended for the evaluation.

    Please read the proceedings6) shown in the reference for details.

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The Research by the Device diffusion project for independence living society construction (2006)
  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 20-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is information of the titled school by the grant of Welfare and Medical Service (WAM). It is a rare sight that the affiliation meeting of the cross-industrial association group obtained the support of WAM.

    The purpose of a school is as follows;

    i) Enabling rehabilitation for Participants of the school in oneself,

    ii) even if there is paralysis by the cerebrovascular disorder, one can overcome disability and can live independent living.

    iii) the spread of welfare devices, and for the disabled elderly after bone fracture to dignify sustentation and life fullness,

    iv) mitigation of a care worker's care burden.

    There were the lectures at the school as follows;

    i) Kenji Ushizawa, Professor of San-no Industry and Management University, “How do you think about a cure,”

    ii) Mitsuyo Makita. Professor of Niigata University of Health and Welfare, "Composition of Takizawa method rehabilitation and social-welfare-equipment using,"

    iii) Kyoko Takizawa, Nagaoka Hospital for Bedridden, “lecture of Practical skill instruction and description of the rehabilitation which can perform anywhere and anyone.”

    This school meeting was designed by the cross-industrial association group, and a composition subject is a research institute. The private nonprofit organization (NPO) formation was expected in order to change to individuals from the corporation center at the opportunity of the school by the grant.

    We formed "NPO the social engineering study group for the aged citizen" in 2006 to Kanagawa Prefecture.

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The International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy - IBRA (2007 - 2013)
  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 21-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy International Affairs Department became an independent organization named the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy at the 6th IBRC Poland in 2008 as Prof. Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Medical Research Center of Polish Academy of Sciences a chairman. The author was recommended to the president and took office. We showed the pictures of it as the reference.

    We hold the 7th International Conference in Cuba at the Central American where medically advanced nation. We hold the workshop of health and aged society relation in celebration of the 80th-anniversary enterprise of the Japanese Cuba diplomatic relations this year.

    Moreover, we renamed the NPO social engineering study group for the aged citizen founded in 2006 to the NPO International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy at this opportunity.

    The author asked Dr. Angel Casaco Parada of the Conference Chairperson with a consciousness that we wanted to hold the conference on the island where the author’s yearning pirate of the Caribbean Sea shined with there. While holding preparation progressed, the author knew the spirit of innovation and the significant influence of the countries in Central America of the Cuba medical treatment. To hold a workshop at the Central America Medicine University, which is the base of those, had significant meaning.

    The author explains the Takizawa Method rehabilitation by the motivative exercise to the students who are performing medicine studying abroad from Central American countries to Cuba.

    It must be a fruitful presentation with substantial contents for the participant from many countries.

    Please read the details as shown in reference for the 6th IBRC Poland in 20081).

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 22-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is a report of the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy Japan holding.

    A title of this paper is symbolic because the President of the organization changed from Professor Tetsuhiko Kimura of the rehabilitation medicine to Professor Takuji Shirasawa, the aging control medicine of Juntendo University.

    Rehabilitation medicine has accepted the medical expenses by the institution standard and an arrangement standard for many years. It was not a view on the basis of the recovery for which medicine is required, and there were a lot of doctors feel strange on it.

    In addition to these standards, the central Council on Medical Service Facilities began moves of "using a revivification degree standard" this time.

    We took in the viewpoint of antiaging medicine, not to oppose, but we compounded and adapted it in order to rehabilitation medicine developed into 21st-century type medicine further, for the 13th conference. Although aging control medicine strived with realizing the health old man to be, it was difficult to prevent revelation of dementia and resulting disuse syndrome after the functional fall after aging or fracture.

    To hold this Conference aimed at contributing to the fusion of rehabilitation medical treatment and it.

    There were two lectures pointed to the increase in future social security cost. One was from the specialist of the Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry of Japan and the other was Shuji Kawai, a president of the Geriatric Health Services Facility in Japan.

    Moreover, then they felt us not to enable to keep the same care that currently served. We feared that care relinquishment experience becomes a trauma of Japanese society by not to sustain the present social welfare services.

    We aim at social construction where people tell their experience the next generation with pride in a super-aged society.

    The new researchers and strategists are expected to participate.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 23-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    According to statistics by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the requiring care elderly’s number increased with 4.51 million people in 2007 from 2.18 million in 2000 and increased 2.06 times.

    On the other hand, according to an announcement of Japanese Physical Therapy Association, the physiotherapist (PT) who is a strategist of rehabilitation medical treatment, the member in 2000 were 2 13,321 persons (26,921 successful candidates), and members in 2007 were 48,590 persons (58,647 successful candidates), increased in number by 2.08 times by the membership. Furthermore, the number of the rehabilitation medicine specialists (specialists) were 1384 persons in April 2007 and increased 30-50 persons every year from 1980.

    The specialists and PT increased. All Japanese have benefited by the medical insurance in all country, and who needed rehabilitation medical treatment were received without exception.

    Why do the disabled elderly requiring care double and do bedridden elderly people increase in number in the situation? Is only the author doubt it, not you?

    Though people received rehabilitation medical treatment, those who need care increased in number sharply.

    There is a specialist who makes this a "lie." It became clear in the case of article refereeing to a social engineering Journal.

    Moreover, although we applied for the research grant of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare about the research of the motivative exercise, evaluation was among the five-point full marks "one point" not usually to point. An examination person told the motivative exercise "A disturbance exercise " and indicated that the research we had done was not research.

    They who protect own life at a salary of rehabilitation medical service’s expenses want that the fact those who need care increase is a "lie," although there are also many people who develop a duty and aim at the effective rehabilitation medicine.

    We are continuing the research for converting such a situation.

    A medical treatment fee system of rehabilitation medicine was used as an institution standard and an arrangement people standard not based on recovery. It would be changed using a revivification degree standard. Moreover, even if the change from the passive exercise to the motivative exercise on the medical treatment system occurred, the confidential relationship with experience with patients and the engaged persons concerned about it would not be spoiled.

    We would like to contribute to the innovation of the rehabilitation medicine by learning the multi-domain with absorbing and developing at the turning point and great conversion visiting.

    We convince that our study realizes much more a social contribution by the innovation of it and enrich activity of them, while 2 million baby-boomers in 1 grade in Japan become the age of requiring care.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 24-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We held the 7th IBRC 2009, “Social security measure concerning technology and aging” and workshop focusing on technology transfer and problem search as noticed, “Workshop of health and aged society - Holding of the 80th anniversary Conference of the Japanese Cuba diplomatic relations.”

    The support of Ministry was obtained so that we renamed the NPO social engineering study group for the aged citizen formed by the grant the International Biophilia rehabilitation Academy as the English name for being a registration corporation.

    The Granma, which was the national newspaper in Cuba covered the Conference on November 24-25, 2009 on a large scale.

    The many-sided deliberation was performed at the society. As the method spread through the Republic of Palau by the IBRC2002, which was co-held with the Saipan government of the 1st Conference, the possibility of spread to each country in Central America was felt strongly. There was their desire to arrange four books even in Japanese in a library via the Cuba embassy.

    We checked that a base had universal recognition about infant mortality rate and longevity.

    We understood that the control of lifetime while from birth to dies moved from the rule of nature to rule under people's intention. Nature structure of life and death changed then we had debated the ethics for an individual's existence of life-sustaining treatment such as gastrostomy.

    We expect many researchers' participation in the research of the social security measure how to realize the independence living society as a new subject. Please read the details shown in the Reference1).

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 25-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We held the 8th International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference as the Organized Session for the 5th Beijing International Rehabilitation Forum.

    There are 160 million people aged 60 and over in China already exceeding the overall population of Japan.

    In the population ratio, it is 12.5%. A national average lifespan is 73 years old since the medical health system was spread all over the country since the founding of the country between 60 years, and the capability of epidemic prevention and medical treatment also improved by the China network news. Moreover, "The elderly who cannot support themselves with disability amount to 9.6 million people" is supposed. Furthermore, the elderly population ratio of Shanghai is supposed to reach 40% of the population in 2030.

    The title of the keynote address was Biophilia rehabilitation in an aged society to China, Japan, and every country in the world, in which the author described the possibility of "the Aging Crisis" after this fact is shown. Moreover, the author described it was indispensable to make Aged Society Sustainable for the disabled elderly to live independent living. “Establishment of the Sustainable Super-Aged Society” is necessary as described in the article in 2003 in this edition.

    The record, present condition and a future outline of the study to realize "overcome disability" from "acceptance of disability" was shown at the keynote address the IBRC 2010.

    China is called the devoted country. Director Li Jianjun of CRRC said "the elderly are a precious article of a country" and then the elderly’s problem as "Aging Crises" cannot arise in China. The author had contributed to "welfare" magazine since 1998 and aspired after this research in 1987. There was no one understanding person and even it was necessary for 7 years for the first understanding person to obtain in a family.

    The devoted country makes us bring the national consciousness of Japan to mind at the start time of related research in 1987. Please read the Prod. Shown in the reference1) for details.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 26-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The author introduced his books1-4) and lectures as follows and presented “Establishment of a new civilization which does not make the increase in elderly people a negative factor” by realizing from “Care Reliance to Independence” and “changing the elderly's consciousness to live on the others' care from necessity" as follows5);

    1 . Outsider's endeavor,

    2 . Takizawa Method patented in the U.S.,

    3 . Foreknowledge of a social security expenditure shortage,

    4 . Indication of "AGING CRISIS" by an age pyramid being reversed,

    5. Proposal of a new mythos and Expansion of the life stage,

    6 . The etymology of "biophilia,"

    7 . Forwarding an international activity,

    8 . Elucidation of mechanism,

    9 . Paradigm shift,

    10. Necessities of two paradigm shifts,

    11. Citizens' demand, and

    12. Individual living and dignity.

    Japanese historical personage, Ieyasu Tokugawa started the Edo Shogunate which lasted for over 260 years. Moreover, then the essence of his reign was “To make people depend entirely on the Shogunate government not make them know the intelligence. Japanese people have seldom acted to acquire information correctly neither judge by oneself but depended entirely on the government for a long time.

    Individual living and dignity were not desired. It looks to have been continuing to the present when looking back upon the pension disturbance which began from not giving information. (The pension disturbance made the regime break in Japan.) The debt of the country with rural areas is over one quadrillion yen.

    It is in the state where we cannot depend on the government any longer. The Individual living and dignity are required, and our study would make it possible.

    Please read the proceedings shown in the reference for details6).

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 27-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We received the letter of appreciation to holding the workshop biophilia 2011 of Romania from the acting ambassador of Romania in Tokyo, Petre Stoian, by the result of his assessment of the correspondence of the government of each holding country. Please look at the picture that the author received the certificate of appreciation.

    Takizawa Rehabilitation Method was patented in the USA.

    An autonomous kinetic rehabilitation training which trained by the patient self by using devices the unaffected side activity the affected side passivity was named the motivative exercise.

    The author lectured the Takizawa Method and the motivative exercise to the medical students studying abroad from Central American countries to Cuba. It is my pleasure that it becomes the big good news for human beings to export the rehabilitation technology born in Japan by holding a workshop.

    It seemed that workshop holding for teaching those was also expected from the previous correspondence of the government of each country so that he appreciated that the fact of to enable overcoming the disabilities and to prolong the elderly's healthy life expectancy.

    The author introduced such a fact.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 28-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We introduce the contents of the ninth international biophilia rehabilitation Academy (IBRA) holding on 29-30 September 2011. Prof. Mieczyslaw Pokorski, Medical Research Center of Polish Academy of Sciences had assumed the position of chairman of the 9th IBRC.

    We introduced contents characteristic of our studies, besides an announcement of each country society. The author as a person in charge of the clinical study reported as the first one. We examined Brain activity using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) by performing motivative and passive exercise (PEX) on the lower extremities, including the Randomized Control Trial for the gropes.

    Focusing on each encephalic motor area (the encephalic place which manages a movement), we compared the result depending on official multiplex approval of the change of OxyHb (hemoglobin which is carrying oxygen). As for comparing passive movement performed by a physiotherapist and motivative exercise, the motivative exercise for knee bending and stretching exercises shows brain broadly active (P<0.05).

    We summarized that the motivative exercise enabled to substitute for the passive exercise by the physical therapist.

    When said simply, we could show the motivative exercise can substitute for the passive exercise. Other researches are also interesting.

    Please read the proceedings shown in the reference1) for details.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 29-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The workshop biophilia 2011 was held in Bucharest, Romania, on September 25, 2011. We got the honorable support from the Japanese Embassy in Romania (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), a Romania embassy in Japan, the Tokyo branch office of the Romania government tourist board for it.

    Prof. GELU ONOSE, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila," in Bucharest,

    President of the Romanian Society for NeuroRehabilitation (RoSNeRa) affiliated to the World Federation of NeuroRehabilitation (WFNR) - and Member of the WFNR Council, and

    President of the Romanian Spinal Cord Society (RoSCoS) affiliated to the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and the European Spinal Cord Injury Federation (ESCIF), had assumed the position of chairman of it.

    The author explained our endeavor of the previous studies and the view of the future on the foundation of the keynote lecture as follows; i) We try to make reader understandable "a possibility of gaining a victory" (possibility of constructing a sustainable super-aged society) and would like to enable it with together. ii) The most intelligible example is the medical treatment of the hemiparesis which is a sequela of apoplexy on the rehabilitation medicine. The patient has been treated on the basis of bending and stretching the contracture hand and/or foot by a physiotherapist with hope to re-acquire activity. iii) Once, a patient who was the detective of the Kanagawa Prefectural Police asked for a female physiotherapist “Please don't be too serious with me.” She asked him, "Why." Then he answered, "I had heard that rehabilitation is painful." Once, there had been the questioning to make the crime confess and/or extract a secret from a person by bending and stretching the hand and/or foot over a range of motion. If this is considered, to be sure, it seems to be painful. iv) Moreover, the present condition is that cure those who could be cured and those who could be not cured make it give up. There are more than 1.3 million patients in apoplexy, and half people have given up the sequela.

    Some doctors concluded, "An effect is not acquired about the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation as a result of reflecting own experience" as introduced in our journal.1) The Kunihiko Fukui MD. Ph.D. who worked as a doctor of the department of rehabilitation for 50 years since 1959 and Tetsuhiko Kimura MD. Ph.D. who was the director of the national rehabilitation center for disabled people announced it with together.

    The author claimed so far that restructuring of rehabilitation medicine was required and have driven forward research on it. The author looked back upon the workshop this year and introduced "the revolution of hope begun."

    Please read the proceedings shown in the reference for details2).

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 30-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The 10th IBRC, " towards the realization of two paradigm shifts; restructuring of rehabilitation medicine and consciousness conversion which enables to the contribution of the elderly people to a sustainable superaged society " was held in Chieti, Italy on October 15, 2013. Professor Camillo Di Giulio, MD. Ph.D. and Professor Raoul Saggini, MD. Ph.D. of University Chieti had assumed the position of chairpersons of it.

    We got the honorable support from the Japanese Embassy in Italy (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and the Italy embassy in Japan for it. Our enterprise is to enable construction of sustaining the super-aged society by the restructuring of the rehabilitation medicine. The Italy embassy in Japan awarded the letter of Appreciation by the evaluation of our activities. It is our honor to indicate the contents below.

    LETTER OF APPRECIATION

    To the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy, President Taki TAKIZAWA Shigeo

    The International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy regularly holds the International Conference in different countries and contributes to improvement in the people’s welfare through the improvement in rehabilitation medicine. The activity for the functional recovery of advanced age disabled persons is esteemed by the government of each country. The 10th International Biophilia Rehabilitation conference will be held in Chieti, Italy, on 15 0ctober 2013.

    It is my sincerest desire to promote a cooperative and productive relationship in this field between Italy and Japan in the future starting with the success of this scientific meeting.

    This letter of appreciation is presented to the president of the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy, Professor Taki TAKIZAWA Shigeo who represents the conveners of the International Conference, expressing deep gratitude to the efforts of the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy.

    We introduced the whole sentence. Also, Amari Akira, the minister in charge of economic revitalization transmitted the congratulatory telegram. Moreover, President Kiyoshi Morita, National University Corporation Okayama University extended congratulations to the journal BIOPHILIA published in February 2013.

    From such support, our activities are considered that the day which stands on a social role is drawing near.

    We expect the participation of reader my dear friends in our study. Please read the proceedings shown in the reference1) for details.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 31-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This document is a follow-up of the 10th IBRC1), primarily related to the keynote address of the author.

    There were Rich history and culture, and exchange between Japan and Italy, such as the Vatican, and the Roman Empire, and Tensho Ken-o Shonen Shisetsu, which was a mission of four boys and others dispatched to Rome in 1582. Moreover, about the Vatican and the Roman Empire, the author could call for mind the Christianity where more than 2 billion believers are all over the world which began from people of a small number called 12 apostles.

    There is also a common feature of the average lifespan exceeding 80 more years old. This follow-up document described the consideration which placed the foundation of such a standard feature and civilization.

    At the time of this holding, we renewed the Academy’s homepage and exhibited the study to realize two paradigm shifts, and the results to spread.

    The 1st paradigm shift is the restructuring of the rehabilitation medicine by introducing the Takizawa Method and the Motivative exercise. In the century of longevity, the extension of the healthy life expectancy is indispensable to improvement in human beings' welfare so that we drive forward to conjugate the related research fields including medical science, engineering, and social science, and study it.

    The 2nd paradigm shift is to make possible “consciousness conversion which enables to live independent living for the disabled elderly even if one got the disability and to realize consciousness conversion toward doing it.”

    Human change of rehabilitation medicine in our country is shown below; the rehabilitation medical specialists doubled with 810 to 1787 in about ten years by 2012. Physiotherapists increased in number more than 100 thousand people and 470%. On the other hand, by the increase of person in charge, it is possible to think the disabled elderly would decrease but they doubled from 218 million people in 2000 to 554 million in 2012.

    This situation indicates that it is necessary for the restructuring of rehabilitation medical treatment.

    The research team now is a small number as that numbers would suggest of 12 apostles literally. Although it is such the present condition, our mind is to make a super-aged society sustainable due to realizing two paradigm shifts through our research in many countries, Japan, Italy, and the world at historically in society. If it looks back upon the Christianity history, which came to have 2 billion or more believers. The history starts with "Begin with a small number, the activity by a small number of group draws a historic result." We are sure that this Conference became the foundation. We expect individual readers, my dear friends' participation. Please read the proceedings shown in the reference1) for details.

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The Research at the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy - IBRA (2006)
  • Kunihiko Fukui
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 32-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This article summarized the lecture performed at the ninth Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy.

    Authorial career became a doctor of engineering in Tokyo Imperial University and became a medical doctor after that in the University of Tokyo in 1959. The author acted as a doctor of the department of rehabilitation in the Kanagawa prefectural Nanasawa rehabilitation hospital, vice-director, and director of the Kageyu rehabilitation institute of Nagano Prefecture, and worked after that till November 2005 as a rehabilitation specialist at " Shonan-no-oka geriatric facility."

    The author summarized his experienced intervention result as the rehabilitation specialist and also quoted the published result of the general investigation of the theory which is a core of rehabilitation medicine.

    The priority of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) to hemiplegic patients on the affected side must be reconsidered due to a lack of effect in its procedure. By the improvement of the theory and techniques of PNF, the improvement of therapeutic effects on hemiplegia patients could be expected in connection with their progress. However, the outcome of medical examination has hardly been changed on hemiplegia patients at the clinical aspect over the last 40 years. Although PNF is thought to be more suitable for the normalization of a movement pattern to perform synthetic coordinated movements by affected side priority, it takes too long to lead to the active contraction of the peripheral muscles. Sometimes, even the atrophy of an unaffected side and the trunk can be seen.

    In considering the PNF of unaffected side priority, the effect of facilitation is larger than that of affected side priority.

    Therefore, if the unaffected priority is used a smaller number of patients will be bedridden by atrophy and contracture.

    From the recent research on the new born power of a neural stem cell (NSC), the elucidation of the mechanism for the effectiveness of the kinetic rehabilitation by the unaffected side priority enables us to expect the functional recovery of a damaged area.

    The NSC would also affect to the rehabilitation in the realm of the nervous system. It is recommended to try to use and get the evidence of PNF by unaffected side priority. Please read the following for details1).

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Message for IBRC 2018 in Chieti-Pescara, Italy
  • Raoul Saggini
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 33-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is with great excitement and need for international exchange that we are pleased to organize the 15th edition of the IBRA as the host institution. The aim of this experience will be an international exchange of rehabilitative experience that would give rise to new approaches more and more effective and valuable for the outcomes of the patients.

    Compare working, assessment and therapeutic approach methodologies are the foundation of multidisciplinary learning that can produce results on shared methodological guidelines.

    The approach to chronic disease in these areas becomes a topic of great interest for the population, for the healthcare specialists, for the government management that handles the health world. This experience wants to be a guideline to search a shared way to the achievement of organizational and economics health care useful goals in the management of disability.

    For these reasons, I take this opportunity to thank bodies and academic institutions that have allowed this international exchange.

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  • Camillo Di Giulio
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 34-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is a great pleasure to invite you to the 15th IBRA Conference organized by the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy. The Conference will highlight the most relevant issues in the management of a spectrum of disabilities related to diseases as well as those developing in the process of ‘normal’ physiological aging. The aim will be achieved by presenting the latest developments in basic and clinical research and technical progress concerning the rehabilitative aids. The term ‘Biophilia’ literally means ’love of life,` which pertains to the human desire to live as long and well as possible. That is actually what medical rehabilitation is all about, i.e., to counteract disabilities developing as a result of disease or aging process and to make the quality of life better. The IBRA is an international body uniting rehabilitators, physicians, and other medical professionals as well as engineering experts in designing rehabilitation aids. The organization advocates `motivated rehabilitation`, a unique approach to rehabilitation in which the rehabilitant actively expresses a desire to lessen disability, as opposed to passive rehabilitation performed by rehabilitators. The IBRA 2018 will address rehabilitation practices across different countries and hopefully will provide some guidelines for the best practice of rehabilitating programs. Rehabilitation is contemporarily understood not only improvement or repair of lost physical functions due to diseases, but also as part of specific treatment, prophylaxis, or antiaging strategies, all of which is expected to increase physical and mental agility. The IBRA 2018 will provide a unique environment to network with colleagues from various parts of the world, offering an interactive venue for exciting scientific exchanges. Participating in the IBRA 2018you endeavor to contribute to the improvement of people's lives and welfare, in particular, those who live into old age. You will share your wisdom and keep up with the latest developments in basic and clinical aspects and innovations in rehabilitation medicine.

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  • Shigeo, Taki TAKIZAWA
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 35-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Dear colleagues, On behalf of International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy, it is my pleased to extend heartfelt greetings to my friends all over the world in holding IBRC 2018. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. The Soviet-type socialism political party (Communist Party) and national economics person in the world who believed the realization of a communist society were defeated ideologically. The methodology for the economy of the foundation of a communist society was circulated in the world as Marxian economics. The communism society was a social system built steadfast. However, communism failed. It is positive in thinking that there were the professors and course of Marxian economics to most of all Universities. Our investigation at present does not find the course which advocates the Marxian economics. Where have all of them gone? Although Rehabilitation Medicine has been a social system built steadfast, the endeavor of the Biophilia was started in order to the restructuring of the rehabilitation medical treatment a purpose. Does the rehabilitation medical treatment have a conversion from now on? It is sure that conversion takes place since there is inconsistency as shown; Is the Restructuring of Rehabilitation Medicine Necessity? - Why do People Become "Bedridden? " in 2009, Verification of the Development of Effective Rehabilitation Medicine by Cerebral Function Research in 2011, and Revolution of Hope Begun in 2011. The NPO International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy was organized wishing to advance the conversion from the firm belief. We can convert the rehabilitation medicine which permits "Acceptance of Disability" at present into the medical science of "Overcome Disability." It will be possible as indeed that the day which conversion can realize is near due to the proposition of the new intervention method, which was shown by "Proposition from Experience" as the watchword. We aim at this realization through the research activities of the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy. Under the social situation of the rehabilitation medicine conversion, it is sure that a physiotherapist (PT) must change from the specialist person of passive exercise.

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  • Mieczyslaw Pokorski
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 36-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It takes great pleasure to attend the 15th Conference of the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy to be held under the auspices of Chieti University 28-29 June 2018 in Pescara. As always the conference will be devoted to the restructuring of rehabilitation medicine to meet the strong public and patient demand for most efficient cutting edge methods in rehabilitation. The issue cannot be underestimated in view of the rapidly aging societies and a growing shortage of economic and human resources to meet the demand for face-to-face rehabilitation. Although the personal approach of physiotherapist will possibly never be adequately substituted for something else of a comparable therapeutic meaning, at least in some areas of physiotherapy, such as proprioceptive muscular facilitation and the likes, motivated rehabilitation, in which the patient’s personal motivation and effort mitigates the need for extensive participation of therapists in the rehabilitation process, is a heady trend actively pursued by IBRA activities. IBRA performs an undaunted effort to effectively make the principles of motivated rehabilitation a reality and to put this method into practice. It is great that the Italian scientific collaborators and sympathizers of IBRA joined in with an offer of cooperation in burden-sharing of spreading word and expanding the knowledge of, and rational for, motivated rehabilitation. IBRA conferences have always a lot of basic science and clinical research on the potential benefits of rehabilitation. I have no doubts that that will also be the case at the upcoming conference in Chieti. The success of a conference lies in the attendees and free exchanges of ideas expertise, and experiences. The 2018 Conference will bring together therapists, researchers, clinicians, trialists, methodologists, and other allied professionals to update the current state of knowledge, to tackle controversies, and to outline some visions of further development of motivated rehabilitation-based therapy. I wish you all having a scientifically profitable and successful event.

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  • Toshiyuki Tanaka
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 37-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is a great pleasure to hold the 14th International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference (15th IBRC) in Chieti-Pescara, Italy, on June 28-29, 2018. I am Toshiyuki Tanaka, chairperson of Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy in Japan. I am part of the Faculty of Science and Technology at Keio University, which is a long-established private institution founded in Japan in 1858 by Yukichi Fukuzawa. Keio University is well known to researchers worldwide for the students and professors who produce high-quality research. My research field is pattern measurement, including medical image processing and computer-aided diagnosis. The number of patients has increased in many countries, in step with the aging of the population. Medical devices such as fMRI, fNIRS, and X-ray CT become widely used to support the work of doctors. Although the precision of diagnosis has risen markedly, it seems that the burdens on doctors have not lessened. To reduce these burdens, we are developing a diagnosis support system using medical image processing. We have promoted the construction of a new rehabilitation system that one physical therapist treats several patients with easy devices, which was called “Takizawa method”. The international Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (IBRA), which is a sisterhood institute of BRA in Japan, has worldwide revolved the promotion of new rehabilitation system. In consequence, IBRA has achieved a harmonious relationship with Poland, Italy, Romania, and so on. In this year, we have an international conference in cooperation with Chieti University again, where the 10th IBRC was held in 2013. We appreciate the chair of the organizing committee in Chieti-Pescara. The BRA in Japan shall be glad to serve IBRC 2018 in any way in our power. Through a workshop and research exchange, we hope that the 15th IBRC will provide the opportunity to introduce important innovations in the field of the rehabilitation.

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  • Gelu Onose
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 38-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Greetings

    The International Biophilia Rehabilitation Conference (IBRC) is holding now its 15th edition, so this can be considered an anniversary moment for the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (IBRA). As being an already ”old” – since 2011 – contributor, over time, to different successful scientific events of the IBRA/ IBRC (Workshop, some Conferences and respectively, editorial endeavors), I am glad to determine, on this occasion too, the endurance of this prestigious entity. Additionally, having the two main targeted, by the IBRA, medical specialties: Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and respectively, Gerontology and Geriatrics, and being also an academic with related teaching activity in both these domains, I cannot be but very content to see confirmed, once again, its constant care for and consequent approach of, a most challenging actual global issue: the accelerated demographic aging process – to which, including the current IBRC, is dedicated, i.e. ”REHABILITATION MEDICINE TO THE SUPER-AGED SOCIETY”. I am sorry for not being able, from objective reasons, to attend this IBRC, but I wish to it, as always, a great success!

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Presentations for IBRC 2018 in Chieti-Pescara, Italy
  • Alessandro Giustini
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 39-40
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The fundamental objective of Rehabilitation is to empower people with disabilities to maximize their physical and mental abilities to have access to regular community activities and opportunities and become active and contributing members of family/society. People with different disabilities of any kind including impaired hearing, speaking, moving, learning or behavior, of groups of all ages: children, youth, adults and elderly.

    The International Bill of Human Rights includes many Acts (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Convention on Economics, Social and Cultural Rights, International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, Convention on Rights of the Child, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons) and describes basis for the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People with Disabilities, stating: "The principle of equal rights implies that the needs of each and every individual are of equal importance, that those needs must be made the basis for the planning of societies, and that all resources must be employed in such a way as to ensure that every individual has equal opportunity for participation."

    In 2001 a Joint Paper by WHO, ILO, UNESCO, UNICEF on contents and aims for Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) has been defined. CBR, created by WHO after Alma Ata Meeting, promotes the rights of disabled children, youth, women and men to live within their communities, to enjoy health and well-being and to fully participate in educational, social, cultural, religious, economic and political activities. CBR plays a key role for Rehabilitation strategies in the general community development against disabilities and lack of participation.

    Therefore it is also a strategy to address human development towards the creation of “Inclusive Community.” The principle of “inclusion” is also applied to health and vocational services, cultural centers and communities, and is a “goal” also for Rehabilitation activities.

    During the past two decades, in almost all countries, Disabled People's Organizations (DPOs) and Family associations have been established and strengthened. Meanwhile, in relation to these evolution in social and cultural fields, significant changes in the concepts of disability and rehabilitation developed. Rehabilitation is now viewed as a process in which disabled people or their advocates make decisions about services (to be assured by the Community in different ways) they need to reduce limitations in their activities.

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  • Shigeo Takizawa
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 41-42
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Jiji Press which is a news agency distributed our activities in all parts of Japan from 1998 to 2013 by their specialized information journal “Kosei Fukushi” meaning Welfare and Health. Those are 26 pieces in all and most are a report of 4-6p. They published 5 articles for the 21st Century Rehabilitation Study Groups (1998 - 2000), 5 for the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (2002 – 2005), 3 for the International Affairs Department of Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy (2003 - 2005), 1 for The Research by the Device diffusion project for independence living society construction (2006), and 11 for the International Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy - IBRA (2007 - 2013). Moreover, 1 for The Research at the Biophilia Rehabilitation Academy - IBRA (2006) by the honorary chairman. All the abstracts of them were published as the Workshop source material in this edition. The full articles of Japanese were reprinted in the Biophilia Rehabilitation study 2017 based on the articles of the Jiji press “Kosei Fukushi” shown in the reference of the abstracts document. The author introduces the outline and clarifies the history and purpose of the IBRA with distributed articles.

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  • Toshiyuki Tanaka
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 43-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, the stroke patients have increased in step with the aging of the population in many countries. Although "Takizawa method" was proposed as the new rehabilitation system for assisting physical therapists (PTs), the assessment is not sufficiently performed. The fNIRS and fMRI are useful for the assessment of rehabilitation effectiveness. Here, we discuss about assessment approach by using fNIRS and fMRI.

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  • Andrea Angelini, Pietro Ruggieri
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 45-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Sarcomas represent less than 1% of adult cancers and they account for approximately 21% of pediatric malignancies. The heterogeneity of these tumors results in variable responses to generalized therapeutic strategies. In the last four decades, significant advances in the treatment of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas have been made. Historically, the prognosis of these patients was poor due to the aggressiveness of tumors and their ability to reach large volume, resulting in substantial deformities and disabilities. Since the advent of chemotherapy (adjuvant and neo-adjuvant protocols), the curves of survival changed dramatically. On the other hand, concurrently advances in surgical management, in imaging and diagnostic techniques, and both local and systemic adjuvant treatments, have determined a significant improvement of limb sparing surgery as successful treatment with a meaningful quality of life.

    In recent years, the greatest medical advances in the management of malignant musculoskeletal tumors have been made in high-dose chemotherapy and other related treatments, including target therapies and immunotherapy. In the field of radiation therapy, the use of protons and carbon ions is recognized to offer considerable advantages compared to conventional photon-based radiotherapy protocols. Some of the most recent innovations in surgery include biological and prosthetic reconstructions, together with computer-assisted navigation and 3D-printed implants. Innovations in other fields of oncology that has been required by surgeons include the assessment of surgical margins, new classifications, the evaluation of function and quality of life, and adequate follow-up protocol. For future research, prospective, multi-institutional, large registries are required to answer open questions.

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  • Giovanni BARASSI, Rosa Grazia BELLOMO, Marco SUPPLIZI, Daniele MARIAN ...
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 46-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent times the survival possibilities of cancer patients have increased because of an evolution in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Because of that modern medicine have to face new problems related to cancerous pathologies such as cancer outcomes, particularly pain, and recurrences possibilities. These new horizons go hand in hand with the necessity of an increase in consciousness about main risks factor for cancer development like smoke, obesity, malnutrition, poor physical activity, viral and bacterial pathologies, pollution and unprotected sexual activity.

    Because of these reasons it is clear that there I the needing for a new approach to cancer patients, focused not only on the acute stage of the pathology but also on the survival, recurrent and terminal stages of the pathology.

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  • Mieczyslaw Pokorski
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 47-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Aging is usually defined as the progressive loss of function accompanied by increasing morbidity with advancing age. The process of aging is multifactorial and depends on intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Aging concerns both physical and cognitive spheres of an individual. Detriments in functional reserve predominate in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, osteoarthritic, immuno-humoral, and brain systems. Physical exercise, adequate to the metabolic capability of an individual at a given stage of life, has been proposed as a remedy to counteract aging. One of the most common exercise techniques is stretch. The unresolved issue with stretch is what kind of it should be applied in the setting of health care practitioners, particularly those engaged in sports training or rehabilitation of the elderly. There are basically three types of stretch exercise: static stretching, dynamic stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). The static paradigm consists of holding muscles in an elongated position for an extended period, the dynamic consists of moving joints through their range of motion, and the PNF combines static stretching with isometric contractions in a cyclic manner. While the static stretching may lead to muscle weakness which hampers subsequent physical performance, the dynamic stretching gives proneness to injuries, although it may be argued that range of motion is important to activities of daily living and declines with age. On the plus side, dynamic stretching increases the speed of neural signals running down from the brain to muscles, the quickness of motion, and the velocity of enzymes. Studies demonstrate that both PNF and static stretching appear to substantially reduce the number of physical activity-related injuries. Ultimately, the mix of stretch modes, with static stretch followed by dynamic stretch, may be optimal to mitigate the risk of muscle impairment and to counteract injuries. To this end, meditation techniques containing a mixed physical motion ingredient, such as Tai Chi, deserve attention and imitation as exemplary exercise, with the additional benefit of improvement in mood, emotional stability, and cognition.

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  • Camillo Di Giulio, A. Mazzatenta, M. Cacchio, V. Verratti
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 48-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Oxygen homeostasis is essential to the survival of all O2 consuming species. The carotid body (CB) is the site in the body that triggers awareness of changes in blood oxygen pressure and consist of oxygen sensitive cells that generate electric signals in response to a decrease in arterial oxygen pressure. The electric signals are used by the central nervous system to regulate the functions of respiratory muscles and cardiovascular system. At altitude, CB plays a primary role undergoing structural changes that are fundamental to surviving at extreme situations. With the lowering of arterial PO2 at high altitude, there is an immediate increase in firing of afferents from chemoreceptors in the carotid body. After peaking over the next few minutes, the firing rate of afferents begins to rise again within hours until a steady state is reached. This secondary increase occurs along with increase in neurotransmitter synthesis and release and altered gene expression followed by hypertrophy of carotid body glomus cells. Further exposure to hypoxia eventually leads to blunting of the ventilatory response. During acclimatization, resting ventilatory sensitivity to hypercapnia is gradually increased and is maintained thereafter, it has also been reported that resting hypoxic sensitivity is maintained after exposure to hypoxia for many months and years. The response to chronic hypoxia suggests that a number of CB factors involved with growth and neurotransmission are released with time. It is also important to consider that oxygen-sensing mechanisms occur in a tissue-specific fashion, for example, the carotid body responds to hypoxia promptly by eliciting a ventilatory response, whereas oxygen sensitive mechanism in kidney, with the erythropoietin production in response to hypoxia requires more time, involving new expression of genes. The chemoreceptors are the gates that carry information concerning the status of systemic arterial oxygen, therefore, CB is important not only for oxygen sensitive cells, but also for systemic reflexes involved in general homeostasis, respiratory centers, autonomic nervous system, phrenic nerve, pharyngeal muscles, upper airways etc.

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  • Ioan-Sorin Stratulat, Ioana-Alexandra Benea
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 49-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Introduction

    Over the last decade, cardiac rehabilitation has gained a lot of interest and widespread acceptance and plays an important role in the outcome of the ischemic heart disease. Cardiac conditions frequently lead to limited exercise capacity, physical disability and poor quality of life if rehabilitation programmes are not instituted promptly. A well designed cardiac rehabilitation programme should include some important aspects, such as: a precise clinical evaluation, adapted pharmacotherapy, up-to-date physical training and last, but not least, good psychological support.

    Objectives

    In order to obtain good results and to develop a high standard rehabilitation programme, there is a need to create a professional, multidisciplinary team, that will include: physicians, nurses, dietician, social workers, psychotherapists. Moreover, the training programme should start as soon as possible after an acute phase of myocardial infarction, with individualized schedule designed to optimize physical, social and emotional status.

    Methods

    Prior to the programme commencing, patients admitted will benefit from a proper, complete medical evaluation and a graded exercise tolerance test, to establish the necessary steps that need to be taken in order to obtain an optimal recovery. Close supervision is needed when the exercises are performed and also, dynamic exercises are preferred over isometrics. There are multiple phases (1A,1B,2,3), each one with its own particularities and objectives. The hardest of them is Phase 3- Maintenance, due to the fact that benefits of phase 2 can be immediately lost ( a few weeks) if regular exercise is not maintained properly, as well as the other recommendations. Patients that can benefit from this type of programme include: the ones that underwent bypass surgery, after heart failure, valvular disease, stroke, pre and post-heart transplant, LVAD (Left Ventricular Assist Device).

    Results

    Each phase of the programme has good results, with a substantial improvement in the clinical status of the patient, but there is still room for changes. In phase 3, if we do not offer proper medical training to the patient- in order for him to fully comprehend the benefits of rigorously continuing each step of the programme-, the clinical improvements can easily be lost. Some of the major results are: a good blood pressure control, lipid control, physical resistance and decreased symptoms associated with depression.

    Conclusions

    To conclude with, a very important aspect to remember is that rehabilitating programmes represent the future in maintaining a proper social and healthy life, for patients that underwent some major cardiac changes throughout their lives. Ultimate comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation needs to be immediately initiated, properly adapted for each patient’s clinical status and staged and also, continued for required time. We must improve existing programmes and we have to develop new ones, but only if we collaborate and create multidisciplinary teams, in order to obtain the maximum benefit for the patient.

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  • Giovanni BARASSI, Franco FRONDAROLI, Alessandro SANTARELLI, Celeste MA ...
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 50-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Pelvic floor is a complex of muscles, membranes and structural and suspensive ligaments that creates a base plane for the abdominal-pelvic cavity. The role of this structure is really important in the genesis of specific pathologies affecting the psychological, physical and social sphere of the patient. One of the major problem connected to pelvic floor dysfunction is that of urinary incontinence, because of the predominant role of muscular-skeletal uncoordination in the physiopathology of continence problems. That of pelvic floor dysfunctions actually represents one of the most interesting field of physiotherapy, therefore the search for new treatments in that context represents one of the main challenge in rehabilitation.

    For all these reasons the Chair of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the ‘‘G. D’Annunzio’’ University of Chieti-Pescara, in collaboration with the Department of Gynecology at the Clinical Hospital of Chieti (Italy) realized a study regarding a new rehabilitative approach to pelvic floor dysfunction.

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  • The Biophilia Editorial board
    2018 Volume 2018 Issue 1 Pages 51-
    Published: June 26, 2018
    Released: September 25, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    28 June, 2018

    Fibromyalgia in third age, Roberto Paganelli

    Rehabilitative therapeutic cannabis: New frontiers, Marco Bertolotto

    EBM and EBP in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a sistematic review of the Literature, Manuel Gonzalez Sanchez

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation in elderly patient, Maria Consiglia Calabrese

    Respiratory rehabilitation in thoracic surgery: a comparison of methods, Antonella Di Iulio

    Focused acoustic-mechanical vibration with square wave waves and electromagnetic stimulation of microcirculation in the treatment of sarcopenic patient. Claudia Barbato

    Pulsed electrostatic impulses in vascular rehabilitation of elderly patient, ▪ Piera Attilia Di Felice

    Interactive neuromodulation: new therapeutic strategies, Romano De Santis

    29 June, 2018

    Assessment of the activity of pelvic floor muscles depending on various conditions, Tomasz Halski

    Pelvic floor dysfunctions: integrated rehabilitative approach, Giovanni Barassi

    Pulmonary rehabilitation in XXI century - how to rise to this challenge, Dariusz Jastrzebski

    Assessment of changes in ventilation parameters and EMG activity of accessory respiratory muscles after PNF breathing stimulation in chronic stroke patients, Lucyna Ptaszkowska, Tomasz Halski

    Interval exercise training in patients with chronic diseases, Aleksandra Zebrowska

    Different experiences in rehabilitation of osteoporotic patients, Jacek Durmala

    The use of hyperbaric oxygenation in treatment of Lyme artritis, Agnieszka Pedrycz

    Use of low frequency and high intensity ultrasound in the treatment of elderly patient, Piera Attilia Di Felice

    Recovery of ankle and sub-astragalic mobility in the sarcopenic patient, Matteo Crudeli, Loris Prosperi

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